Center staff are involved in several studies aimed at elucidating the concept of integrated coastal management (ICM) and patterns of ICM practice around the world. One of the principal recommendations of UNCED relative to oceans and coasts was that the world's coastal nations give high priority to the adoption of integrated coastal management programs. ICM was seen as a critically important tool for securing sustainable development of coastal areas, for dealing with marine and coastal biodiversity, and for addressing the threat of accelerating sea level rise.

Center researchers have been extensively involved in analyses of ICM theory and worldwide practice, especially since the 1992 Earth Summit. Major research and advisory efforts are described below, starting with the most recent.

International Network of ICM Practitioners: A Partnership Outcome of the WSSD

The Center and the U.S. Coastal States Organization (CSO), together with the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), other government agencies, intergovernmental organizations, and nongovernmental partners in other countries are establishing a network to link coastal management professionals and academics at the national, provincial, state, and local levels. The partnership, formally entitled the International Network of Practitioners and Academics to Support Implementation of Coastal and Ocean Management Programs, was officially launched as a U.N. approved Type II partnership at the August-September 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, South Africa.

The Network is intended to address four major needs in ICM implementation:
  • Exchange of information and experiences among national and subnational agencies, academic institutions, advocacy groups and donor agencies;
  • Improved connections between subnational and national programs domestically to, among other things, translate global environmental and sustainable development concerns into local action;
  • Greater involvement of subnational government interests in international fora on oceans and coasts; and
  • Increased public awareness and greater collaboration between the private sector and public sector on ocean and coastal management issues.
To advance the project, the partners are convening a steering committee of ICM practitioners and of academics, in order to refine goals and objectives, and to develop the network. The steering committee will circulate the proposal among potentially interested government agencies and foundations to obtain support. Initial funding is being provided by NOAA.

The network will seek to expand its reach through cooperation and strategic partnerships with existing regional, national, and subnational groups interested in sustainability and ICM. The project will also partner with the Global Web Service on Oceans, Coasts, and Islands (a cooperative effort of IOC, UNESCO, UNEP/GPA, the World Bank, NOAA, and the Center for Marine Policy (see

Advancing the Use of Indicators for Integrated Coastal Management

There is growing international consensus that quantitative indicators (environmental, socio-economic, and governance indicators) must be developed and agreed upon to measure the progress of coastal management programs around the world (about 100 nations now have some form of coastal management).

The CMP, in partnership with the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), Canada's Department of Fisheries and Oceans, and NOAA organized an international workshop on this topic in May 2002 in Ottawa, Canada, and prepared the Reference Guide on the Use of Indicators for Integrated Coastal Management (published by IOC as ICAM Dossier No. 1 in 2003). Through a literature review on the use of indicators around the world, from various programs and projects at global, regional, national, and local scales, the Guide reveals the complex relationships that exist among coastal ecosystem health and anthropogenic activities, socio-economic conditions, and managerial actions.

Following this work, IOC organized a Group of Experts to develop a multi-year action plan to further study and promote the application of indicators in coastal management programs. Center researchers are part of the Group and also serve as the Secretariat for the effort.

Assessment of Progress Achieved on Oceans and Coastal Management at the Global Level since the 1992 Earth Summit

In this ongoing research, Center staff are examining the extent to which new ICM programs have been established or existing ICM programs have been enhanced in all coastal nations. Data from the study are derived from published literature and from the country reports submitted by nations to the UN Commission on Sustainable Development. A variety of variables are utilized to gauge the extent to which ICM programs have been established in a particular nation. Data are presented for each country as well as aggregated on a regional basis. Trends present in each region (e.g. pattern of ICM development, whether it is government-led or NGO-led, how it is funded, etc.) are presented. The 2000 data are also compared to a 1993 study of country practices in ICM conducted by Jens Sorensen, providing a quantitative measure of changes between 1993 and 2000. This work provided input to the UN's Rio+10 assessment process.

Study of Integrated Coastal Management in Latin America and the Caribbean for the InterAmerican Development Bank (IDB) (1999-2000)

With funding from the IDB, the CSMP cooperated with Dutch colleague Jentje van der Weide on a study of regional mechanisms for ICM in Latin America and the Wider Caribbean. The research involved two major aspects: Study of mechanisms for ICM at the regional level, and development of a framework for national-level analysis of ICM. After analyzing regional mechanisms on ICM in Latin America and the Caribbean, the team carried out a more in-depth analysis of the Wider Caribbean region, including an analysis of existing ICM efforts by a number of regional Caribbean organizations which included the conduct of personal interviews with leaders in the field. Several publications have resulted from the study.

Book on Integrated Coastal and Ocean Management: Concepts and Practices

by Biliana Cicin-Sain and Robert W. Knecht (Washington, D.C. Island Press, 1998, 517 pages) (with the assistance of Dosoo Jang and Gregory Fisk). Foreword by Gunnar Kullenberg, past Secretary, IOC.

Prepared in collaboration with the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, UNESCO, this book provides an analytical guide to national and international entities aiming to establish and/or improve existing systems of coastal management. The book's emphasis is on institutional aspects and on practical methods for achieving intersectoral, intergovernmental and interdisciplinary collaboration in coastal and ocean management. The book :
  • Introduces Integrated Coastal and Ocean Management (ICM) and its basic concepts and methodologies
  • Examines the development of international prescriptions in ICM
  • Provides a practical guide to all phases of ICM-from building political support to the nuts and bolts of implementation
  • Emphasizes the institutional aspects of ICM and provides advice on methods for achieving intersectoral and intergovernmental collaboration on ICM
  • Presents case comparisons drawn from the authors' survey of 29 developed and developing nations
  • Makes observations on ICM practices that are most useful
The book is being used in a variety of education and training courses around the world. Some examples include: World Bank (headquarters and in Africa); IOC-TEMA courses in Latin America; University of Hawaii, USA; Dalhousie University, Canada; University of Washington, USA; University of Genoa, Italy; Cardiff University , UK; Oregon State University, USA; University of Miami, USA; University of Havana, Cuba; University of British Columbia, Canada; University of Rhode Island, USA; Memorial University, Canada; University of Sevilla, Spain; Duke University, USA; University of Delaware, USA; Monterey Institute of International Studies, USA, University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Special Issues of Ocean & Coastal Management on Integrated Coastal Management

Center researchers have organized 12 special issues of the journal devoted to integrated coastal management and progress achieved on ICM since the 1992 Rio Earth Summit.

Capacity Building in Integrated Coastal Management

Center researchers have worked on a number of efforts to build capacity in integrated coastal management in diferent countries and regions, and at the global level:

Collaboration with the World Bank in an assessment of World Bank projects related to coastal management in 16 nations in Africa to ascertain how they might be enhanced and how they might relate to African Process initiatives emanating from the World Summit.

Collaboration with the World Bank on ICM in Ghana. With the sponsorship of the World Bank and in cooperation with the University of Cape Coast (UCC), Ghana, the Center developed a library on integrated coastal management housed at the University of Cape Coast, Ghana.

Collaborative work with the Oceans 21 Program of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), UNESCO and the International Geographical Union. The CSMP is collaborating with the Oceans 21 Program in the preparation of training materials in ICM.

Global Web Service on Integrated Coastal Management. Together with IOC, NOAA/NOS, World Bank, UNEP/GPA, and other partners, the Center has organized a Global Web Service on Integrated Coastal Management (described in a separate leaflet).

Korea Workshop on National Level Implementation of ICM: Implementation of Agenda 21 Prescriptions, held in Seoul, Korea, March 25-27, 1998. (Co-sponsored by the IOC, Korean Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, the Korea Maritime Institute, and the Korean Ocean Research and Development Institute). The Center collaborated in the organization of the conference and the preparation of the proceedings. The workshop examined national experiences in implementing the prescriptions of Chapter 17 of Agenda 21 on creating national and local coordination mechanisms for ICM, and on the incorporation of scientific information in these efforts. The venue of the workshop was especially appropriate since Korea had recently created a new Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries (MOMAF), which incorporates a number of functions previously found in different ministries such as ports, shipping, fisheries, coastal management, and ocean science.

ICM training in India. The Center prepared training modules on ICM which were incorporated as part of an ongoing IOC training effort in India (MAMCOMP) which had to date emphasized only natural science aspects. This module was added to the MAMCOMP course in November, 1997, with lectures by Professors Cicin-Sain and Knecht.

Earth Summit +5. In June 1997, at the Earth Summit +5 special session of the United Nations General Assembly, the Center presented a poster session highlighting its joint work with IOC in integrated coastal management.

IOC training workshop on the integration of marine science in integrated coastal management, held in Dalian China, May 19-24, 1997, co-sponsored with China's State Oceanic Administration. The training workshop focused on how marine science and technology can contribute directly to better decision-making in ICM through a series of lectures, case studies, and discussions on the ICM process. The Center assisted IOC in the organization of the workshop, particularly in the preparation of the curriculum, course materials, and lectures. Professor Cicin-Sain co-chaired the workshop together with Professor Su Jilan, China.

International Workshop on Planning for Climate Change Through Integrated Coastal Management, held in Chinese Taipei, February 24-28, 1997. The Center collaborated with the International Program Office, NOS/NOAA in the organization, conduct, and proceedings of the workshop.

National Workshop on ICM to consider the establishment of an ICM effort in Madagascar, October 1996. The Center assisted IOC in the organization of the workshop and in the publication of materials (in English and in French) presented at the Madagascar workshop, the first effort in the country to begin the establishment of an ICM program.

The Center co-organized three workshops on ICM:

Roundtable on Integrated Coastal Management for UN delegates, United Nations, New York, March 1992.

Reduction of Vulnerability to Sea Level Rise, Colombo, Sri Lanka, February 1992 (co-sponsor)

Integrated Coastal Management and Sea Level Rise, Caracas, Venezuela, January 1992 (co-sponsor)

Gerard J. Mangone Center for Marine Policy
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