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Marine Biodiversity and Taphonomy Through Geologic Time

Marine Biodiversity through geologic time in relation to the evolution of major biogeochemical cycles of phosphorus and micronutrients: Together with the phytoplankton specialist Dr. Antonietta Quigg (Texas A&M University, Galveston) and Dr. Warren Allmon (Director, Paleontological Research Institution and Professor at Cornell University), we have hypothesized that the evolution of marine biodiversity over geologic scales of time is related in part to the evolution of phytoplankton stoichiometry.  Based on studies of trophic cascades in lakes, we suggest that increasing nutrient content of phytoplankton has made it “easier” for animals higher in food pyramids to obtain these nutrients by not having to first expend their own energy to first respire the carbon in food, thereby leaving more energy available for reproduction, increasing population size, and metabolism and to greater rates of micro- and macroevolution.  

Sci Am coversci am p. 2Aphytoplancton

Martin, R.E. and Quigg, A. 2013. Cover story: Tiny plants that once ruled in the seas. Scientific American (June 2013), 308, 40-45. Published online: 14 May 2013 | doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0613-40 (Cover shows the calcareous plankter Emiliania huxleyi, which at forms forms large blooms in the Atlantic Ocean).  Also published in Pour la Science no. 432 (October 2013).

EES book coverOLE Book Cover

The dedication for Earth's Evolving Systems reads: "This book is for Allan Thompson, who did not shrink from learning something new and then teaching it."

 

Ogyopsis klotziiParadoxidesCrinoidEurypterid

ALL PHOTOS BY R. MARTIN

LEFT: The trilobite Ogyopsis klotzii from the Middle Cambrian period of British Columbia.  These beds are of approximately the same age as those of the Burgess Shale located nearby.  Specimen is approximately 10 cm long.

SECOND FROM LEFT: The trilobite Paradoxides from Morocco.  Specimen is approximately 30 cm long.

THIRD FROM LEFT: The crinoid Scyphocrinites from Morocco.  Specimen is approximately 30 cm long.  Crinoids belong to the same phylum (Echinodermata) as starfish and are essentially upside down starfish stuck on a stick.

FAR RIGHT: A eurypterid ("sea scorpion") from the Silurian period near Herkimer, NY.  Red arrows point to chelicerae ("claws") and yellow arrow to mouthparts (which are rarely preserved). 

 

RON MARTIN MARINE DIVERSITY AND EARTH HISTORY PUBLICATIONS—AUGUST, 2013 (listed primarily in chronological order backwards beginning with books)

Martin, R.E. 2012. Earth’s Evolving Systems: The History of Planet Earth. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Burlington, MA. 698p.

Allmon, W.D. and Martin, R. E. Seafood through time revisited: The Phanerozoic increase in marine trophic resources and its macroevolutionary consequences. Informal review returned September 2012 and under revision. Paleobiology, in revision.

Martin, R.E. 1998. One Long Experiment: Scale and Process in Earth History. Columbia University Press, New York. 262p. (Perspectives in Paleobiology Series).

Martin, R.E. and Quigg, A. 2013. Cover story: Tiny plants that once ruled in the seas. Scientific American (June 2013), 308, 40-45. Published online: 14 May 2013 | doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0613-40

Martin, R.E. and Quigg, A. 2012. Evolving phytoplankton stoichiometry fueled diversification of the marine biosphere. Geosciences 2, 130-146; doi:10.3390/geosciences2020130

Martin, R.E., Quigg, A., and Podkovyrov, V. 2008. Marine biodiversification in response to evolving phytoplankton stoichiometry. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 258:277-291.

Martin, R.E. 2004. The fossil record of biodiversity: nutrients, productivity, habitat area and differential preservation. Lethaia 36:179-194.

Martin, R.E. 2002. Cyclic and secular trends in preservation through geologic time: Implications for the evolution of biogeochemical cycles. In DeRenzi, M., Alonso, M.V.P., Belinchón, M., Peñalver, E., Montoya, P., and Márquez-Aliaga, A. (Eds.). Current Topics on Taphonomy and Fossilization, International Conference Taphos 2002, Third Meeting on Taphonomy and Fossilization, Valencia, Spain, p. 67-76.

Martin, R.E., Hippensteel, S. P., and Pizzuto, J. E. 2002. Artificial time-averaging and the recovery of decadal-to-centennial scale ecological signals preserved in the subfossil record: Linking the temporal scales of ecology and paleoecology. Paleobiology 28:263-277.

Martin, R.E. 2001. Marine plankton. In Briggs, D.E.G. and Crowther, P.R., eds., Paleobiology II: A Synthesis.  Blackwell, p. 309-312. (Invited paper)

Martin, R. E. 1998. Catastrophic fluctuations in nutrient levels as an agent of mass extinction: Upward scaling of ecological processes? in McKinney, M. L. (ed.) Biodiversity Dynamics: Origination and Extinction of Populations, Species, Communities, and Higher Taxa. Columbia University Press, p. 405-429.

Martin, R. E. 1996. Secular increase in nutrient levels through the Phanerozoic: Implications for productivity, biomass, diversity, and extinction of the marine biosphere. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Ecosystem Evolution, Moscow, Russia. Paleontological Journal 30:637-643.

Martin, R. E. 1996. Biomineralization and endosymbiosis in foraminifera in response to ocean chemistry. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Ecosystem Evolution, Moscow, Russia. Paleontological Journal 30:662-668.

Martin, R. E. 1996. Secular increase in nutrient levels through the Phanerozoic: Implications for productivity, biomass, and diversity of the marine biosphere. Palaios 11:209-219 (Best Paper Award for 1996).

Martin, R. E. 1995. Cyclic and secular variation in microfossil biomineralization: Clues to the biogeochemical evolution of Phanerozoic oceans. Global and Planetary Change 11:1-23.

 

Taphonomy: The formation and preservation of fossil and subfossil (especially microfossil) assemblages in different sedimentary environments (carbonate and terrigenous) over different scales of time ranging from modern to hundreds of millions of years or more, and the temporal resolution they provide in assessing past environmental change.

Taphonomy Book Cover

 

RON MARTIN TAPHONOMY PUBLICATIONS—AUGUST, 2013                                                       (listed primarily in backwards chronological order beginning with books)

Martin, R.E. 1999. Taphonomy: A Process Approach. Cambridge University Press. 508p. (Invited by CUP; Reviewed by Flessa, K. 1999. Learning from the Dead. Science 288:1971-1972).

Martin, R.E. 1998. One Long Experiment: Scale and Process in Earth History. Columbia University Press, New York. 262p. (Perspectives in Paleobiology Series).

Leorri, E., Martin, R. E., and Horton, B. P. Field experiments on bioturbation in salt marshes (Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Smyrna, DE, USA): Implications for sea-level studies. Journal of Quaternary Science 24:139-149.

Martin, R. E. 2005. Taphonomic analysis and alternative enumeration procedures resolve multidecadal-to-centennial
scale sea-level and paleoclimate signals in microtidal marshes (Delaware, U.S.A.). Journal of the Society of Environmental Micropaleontology, Meiobenthology, and Microbiology 2:68-101.

Hippensteel, S. P., Martin, R. E., and Harris, M. S. 2005. Records of prehistoric hurricanes on the South Carolina coast based on micropaleontological and sedimentological evidence, with comparison to other Atlantic Coast records: Discussion. Geological Society of America Bulletin 117: 250-253.

Martin, R.E., Hippensteel, S.P., Nikitina, D., and Pizzuto, J.E. 2003. Taphonomy and artificial time-averaging of marsh foraminiferal assemblages (Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Smyrna, DE): Implications for rates and magnitudes of late Holocene sea-level change. In R.M. Leckie & H.C. Olson (Eds.). Micropaleontologic Proxies for Sea-Level Change and Stratigraphic Discontinuities. Tulsa: SEPM Special Publication 75, p. 31-49.

Hippensteel, S. P., R. E. Martin, D. Nikitina, and J. E. Pizzuto. 2002. Interannual variation of marsh foraminiferal assemblages (Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Smyrna, DE): Do foraminiferal assemblages have a memory? Journal of Foraminiferal Research 32:97-109.

Martin, R.E., Hippensteel, S. P., and Pizzuto, J. E. 2002. Artificial time-averaging and the recovery of decadal-to-centennial scale ecological signals preserved in the subfossil record: Linking the temporal scales of ecology and paleoecology. Paleobiology 28:263-277.

Nikitina, D.L., J.E. Pizzuto, R.E. Martin, and S.P. Hippensteel. 2002. Transgressive valley-fill stratigraphy and sea level history of the Leipsic River, Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Delaware. In R.M. Leckie & H.C. Olson (Eds.). Micropaleontologic Proxies for Sea-Level Change and Stratigraphic Discontinuities. Tulsa: SEPM Special Publication 75, p. 51-62.

Hippensteel, S.P., Martin, R.E., Nikitina, D., and Pizzuto, J.E. 2000. The formation of Holocene marsh foraminiferal assemblages, Middle Atlantic Coast, U.S.A.: Implications for Holocene sea-level change. Journal of Foraminiferal Research 30:272-293.

Hippensteel, S. P., and Martin, R. E. 2000. Foraminifera as indicators of storm deposition: Implications for barrier island sediment supply and evolution. In Martin, R.E. (Editor). Environmental Micropaleontology. Kluwer Press, Dordrecht. Topics in Geobiology Series, pp. 351-369.

Martin, R. E. 1999. Taphonomy and temporal resolution of foraminiferal assemblages. In Sen Gupta, B., ed., Foraminifera in the Modern Marine Realm. Kluwer Press, Dordrecht, pp. 273-290.

Martin, R.E., Goldstein, S.T., and Patterson, R.T. 1999. Taphonomy as an environmental science. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 149:vii-viii.

Hippensteel, S. P., and Martin, R. E. 1999. Foraminifera as an indicator of overwash deposits, barrier island sediment supply, and barrier island evolution: Folly Beach, South Carolina. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 149:115-125. (symposium volume based on Cushman Foundation symposium "Taphonomy of Microfossils: Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction and Environmental Assessment, "Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, Nov. 6-9.)

Martin, R.E., Patterson, R.T., Goldstein, S.T., and Kumar, A. (eds.). 1999. Taphonomy as a Tool in
Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction and Environmental Assessment. Special Issue Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 149 (1-4):1-434.

Martin, R. E., Wehmiller, J. F., Harris, M. S., and Liddell, W. D. 1996. Comparative taphonomy of foraminifera and bivalves in Holocene shallow-water carbonate and siliciclastic regimes: Taphonomic grades and temporal resolution. Paleobiology 22:80-90.

Martin, R. E., Harris, M. S., and Liddell, W. D. 1995. Taphonomy and time-averaging of foraminiferal assemblages in Holocene tidal flat assemblages, Bahia la Choya, Sonora, Mexico (northern Gulf of California). Marine Micropaleontology 26:187-206.

Martin, R. E. 1993. Time and taphonomy: Actualistic evidence for the formation of benthic foraminiferal assemblages. In Kidwell, S. M., and Behrensmeyer, A. K., eds., Taphonomic Approaches to Time Resolution in Fossil Assemblages. Paleontological Society Shortcourse, Geological Society of America National Meeting (Boston, MA), p. 34-56. (Invited paper).

Kotler, E. D., Martin, R. E., and Liddell, W. D. 1992. Experimental analysis of abrasion and dissolution resistance of modern reef-dwelling foraminifera: Implications for the preservation of biogenic carbonate. Palaios 7: 244-276 (nominated for Best Paper Award).

Kotler, E. D., Martin, R. E., and Liddell, W. D. 1991. Abrasion-resistance of modern reef-dwelling foraminifera from Discovery Bay, Jamaica - implications for test preservation. In Bain, R. (Ed.) Fifth Symposium on the Geology of the Bahamas, Proceedings, p. 125-138.

Martin, R. E., and Liddell, W. D. 1991. Taphonomy of foraminifera in modern carbonate environments: implications for the formation of foraminiferal assemblages. In Donovan, S. K., ed., Fossilization: the processes of taphonomy. London, Belhaven Press, p. 170-194 (Invited paper).

Martin, R. E. and Liddell, W. D. 1989. Relation of counting methods to taphonomic gradients and biofacies zonation of foraminiferal sediment assemblages. Marine Micropaleontology 15: 67-89.
Martin, R. E. 1988. Benthic foraminiferal zonation in deep-water carbonate platform margin environments, northern Little Bahama Bank. Journal of Paleontology 62: 1-8.

Martin, R. E. and Liddell, W. D. 1988. Foraminiferal biofacies on a north coast fringing reef (1-75m), Discovery Bay, Jamaica. Palaios 3: 298-314.

Martin, R. E. and Wright, R. C. 1988. Information loss in the transition from life to death assemblages of foraminifera in back reef environments, Key Largo, Florida. Journal of Paleontology 62:399-410.

Liddell, W. D., Boss, S. K., Nelson, C. V., and Martin, R. E. 1987. Sedimentological and foraminiferal characterization of shelf and slope environments (1-234m), north Jamaica. In Curran, H. A. (Ed.), Third Symposium on the Geology of the Bahamas, Proceedings, p. 91-98.

Martin, R. E. 1986. Habitat and distribution of the foraminifer Archaias angulatus (Fichtel and Moll) (Miliolina, Soritidae). Journal of Foraminiferal Research 16: 201-206.

Marine Biodiversity and Taphonomy Through Geologic Time

The trilobite Paradoxides from Morocco.

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Ronald Martin

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Professor Geological Sciences

 

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School of Marine Science & Policy

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Discovering how geological processes have operated over various time scales to create and influence the planet’s surface environments.

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