Vol. 20, No. 1 Summer 2000
the Delaware Beach
Delaware's beaches shelter a variety of marine life, from
horseshoe crabs to endangered piping plovers. They protect the mainland
from storms. And they attract visitors like a magnet. Over 5 million
people visit the Delaware coast each year. That's more than seven
times the state's population.
As coastal development continues, questions arise about beach management.
For example, do we continue the current policy of beach nourishment
or do we allow the beaches to migrate inland naturally as the sea
level rises? And who should pay to protect and maintain the beaches?
Here at the College of Marine and Earth Studies (CMS), George Parsons,
associate professor of marine policy and economics, is working on
these and other questions concerning the economics of beaches.
Economic Value of a Beach
The economic value of an item that is sold in a store can be determined
by how much money you are willing to pay for it. But you can't just
walk into a store and buy a beach. How then do we determine the
economic value of a beach in dollars and cents?
"When you buy an item in a store, you have made a conscious choice
between that item and your money," says Parsons. "Economic value
can be measured in terms of the choices an individual makes. There
is real economic value if an individual is willing to give up another
activity and devote their recreational or leisure time in going
to the beach," he notes.
In a project funded by the University's Sea Grant College Program
a few years ago, Parsons and Ted Tomasi, an adjunct faculty member
at CMS, used a random utility model to assess the economic value
of a beach.
This model will predict the economic value of a beach as a function
of the number of people who visit that beach. The characteristics
of a beach (e.g., its length and width) and the characteristics
of individuals (in this first case, their travel cost to a beach)
were used to predict how often an individual was likely to visit
a particular beach in a day trip. The random utility model also
revealed how important the different characteristics of a beach
are to an individual.
Parsons and Tomasi, with Matt Massey, Ph.D. student in economics,
initially surveyed the characteristics of 62 beaches in the Mid-Atlantic
region according to such things as availability of parking, beach
length and width, and the presence of a boardwalk and other amusements.
A random sample of approximately 600 Delaware residents was then
asked which beaches they had visited over a year. As would be expected,
Parsons and Tomasi found that if a beach had good parking and a
boardwalk, park, or other amusements, then it would have a high
probability that it would be visited. In contrast, limited access
and a beach that was too wide or narrow decreased the probability
that it would be visited.
Although 62 beaches were studied, Parsons notes that "not all of
these beaches will be in a person's 'choice set' or the actual set
of beaches that an individual will choose from." Individual factors
such as income, free time, beach familiarity, and distance from
the beach will determine the choice set for each person. By taking
an individual's actual choice set into account, Parsons found that
the prediction of which beach a person would visit was improved.
Massey, under the guidance of Parsons, is now expanding the analysis
to address how other characteristics of an individual, such as age
and income, will influence the choice of which beach to visit. This
analysis will improve the prediction of which beach will be visited.
Estimates of the economic value of Delaware beaches provide valuable
information for policy makers, according to Parsons. "These estimates
can be used to predict the decrease in the economic value of a beach
due to erosion or closure from an event such as an oil spill or,
likewise, an increase in the value of a beach from nourishment projects,"
Beach Nourishment vs. Retreat
In areas where residential and commercial structures are built
on the beach, valuable beachfront is lost as the sea level rises.
The state of Delaware spends between one million and two million
dollars every year to renourish the beaches with sand to prevent
this loss. This cost, as with everything else, is likely to increase.
Another alternative is to allow the beaches to migrate inland naturally.
From an economic perspective, nourishment and retreat are both costly.
But what policy will be the least costly for a community?
Parsons and Robert Dalrymple, E. C. Davis Professor of Civil and
Environmental Engineering at the University of Delaware, are estimating
the costs that are involved in both beach nourishment and beach
retreat in a joint project funded by the University's Sea Grant
The primary cost in a policy of beach nourishment is that of the
sand. Parsons is using historic cost data and price trends to predict
the future cost of the sand while Dalrymple is using ocean engineering
models to estimate the actual volume of sand that will be needed.
Both estimates can then be used to estimate the actual cost involved
in renourishing beaches.
A policy of beach retreat would primarily involve the loss of residential
homes. Parsons and Jeff Wakefield, Ph.D. student in economics, use
erosion rates to estimate the number of homes that may be lost in
the next 100 years.
Although it is tempting to use the market price of these homes
as a measure of the economic loss, a portion of the market price
of a home in a coastal community actually is dependent on its proximity
to the beach. "That value is never lost to the community," Parsons
says. "It is simply shifted to the next house.
Parsons is using actual real estate transactions, along with house
characteristics, to estimate the portion of the purchase price that
can be attributed to each characteristic, including proximity to
the beach. The resulting increase in the value of the home can then
be removed to determine its real economic value.
These estimates will help communities and the state decide whether
a policy of beach retreat or beach nourishment will be the most
Parsons also is reviewing established economic policies to analyze
the effect they have had on coastal areas. In one study, he and
Heather Daniel, M.S. graduate in marine policy, studied the impact
of the Coastal Barriers Resources Act (CBRA) in an area that had
both CBRA and non-CBRA-designated areas.
The CBRA legislation was enacted to minimize beachfront development
by prohibiting the issuance of any new flood insurance policies
by FEMA (the Federal Emergency Management Agency) on undeveloped
coastal barriers on or after October 1, 1983.
The researchers found that the CBRA legislation had little effect
on the housing market as measured by density and pace of development
and value of housing.
However, residents in CBRA-designated areas paid insurance premiums
that were three times higher than those in non-CBRA areas. This
suggests that these residents may be forced to face the real risk
of living on the coast. As a result, taxpayers are likely to save
money by having less property to subsidize.
Parsons also has proposed an innovative taxing policy that will
help defray the cost of beach nourishment projects. Parsons and
Joelle Noalliy, master's student in economics, designed a value-capital
tax that would require the people who live closest to the beach
to pay more. Parsons hopes to expand this study to encompass the
entire Delaware coast.
"All too often economics is ignored in the formation of coastal
policy," Parsons says. "This may lead to a misuse of society's scarce
resources." Perhaps economic analysis will begin to make its way
into coastal policy with efforts like these led by Parsons and other
At the Helm
While you might think that academic institutions throttle down
to a much slower speed during the summer, that's not the case here
at the College of Marine and Earth Studies (CMS).
During the past several weeks, you may have seen or heard about
our faculty and students working in oceans, bays, and marshes close
to home and around the world. Our research efforts continue to span
the ocean science and policy spectrum, from developing a molecular
probe to rapidly detect toxic Pfiesteria, to participating
in national policy studies and debates about how the United States
should govern the ocean at our shores.
And these CMS research efforts represent only the "tip of the iceberg,"
as new faculty member Adam Marsh might note. Dr. Marsh, who has
conducted research in Antarctica for a few months a year for the
past seven years, recently joined CMS as an assistant professor
in our Marine Biology-Biochemistry Program. He has an intense interest
in the metabolic processes of organisms living in "extreme" or demanding
environments, from the ocean waters off Antarctica to Delaware Bay.
Here at CMS, we have a strong commitment to excellence in marine
research and education. And it is thanks in large part to generous
friends who hold a fascination for the sea, and an appreciation
for the benefits of ocean science, that we have been able to achieve
manysignificant goals since the college was founded in 1970.
The college's roots actually extend to 1950 when a group of local
fishermen, alarmed by a drastic decline in Delaware Bay fisheries,
approached the Delaware General Assembly for help. The fishermen
believed the University of Delaware could come to their aid, and
the 116th session of the General Assembly responded by allocating
$30,000 to set up a marine biology program in the University's Department
of Biological Sciences.
From this seed, our college eventually was born, but not without
the great effort and dedication of a close-knit team of researchers
including Joanne Currier Daiber, the first female marine scientist
hired by the University in 1951.
Mrs. Daiber tells with humor and grace the demanding conditions
under which our first marine scientists worked in her portion of
Salty Memoirs: Adventures in Marine Science, a two-volume edition
that will be available soon from CMS.
Her recollections are entitled Views from the Distaff Side,
while the companion volume, Birth Pangs and Growing Pains,
was written by the marine scientist she met here in 1952 and later
married, Franklin C. Daiber, who is now a CMS professor emeritus.
Dr. Daiber recently established a fellowship in recognition of
his wife's pioneering work in marine science. The Joanne Currier
Daiber Fellowship will be awarded annually to a female graduate
student in our Marine Biology-Biochemistry Program. As you read
this issue of At Sea, you'll see other examples of the kinds
of contributions you, our friends, have made to us, the inspiration
behind some of these gifts, and the impact this generosity has had
on our students and on our research and educational endeavors.
Your contributions have helped us grow in important ways, from
building our first research vessel to adding laboratories, scientific
equipment, and endowed professorships. The scholarships and awards
you have funded have helped honor meritorious students as they travel
the path to discovery as the next generation of marine scientists.
As we grow into the future, we acknowledge, with gratitude, the
powerful role that individuals from all walks of life can play in
advancing ocean research and education for the common good.
Dr. Carolyn A. Thoroughgood
Dean, College of Marine and Earth Studies
This edition of At Sea introduces you to our
new writer/editor, Kari Gulbrandsen. She recently joined CMS's Marine
Communications Office as a marine outreach specialist. In addition
to the At Sea newsletter, she'll be working on a variety
of other projects, from scripts for the SeaTalk radio series
to press releases and educational exhibits. Gulbrandsen brings a
strong science background and a diversity of editorial experience
to CMS. She has a B.S. in geophysics from Lehigh University and
an M.S. in material science, along with a certificate in technical
writing, from the University of Delaware. For the past two years,
she served as a technical writer for both the International Centre
of Diffraction Data and the Center of Technology Transfer at the
University of Pennsylvania. Prior to her positions there, she was
the newsletter editor for the Science Alliance of Delaware, a non-profit
organization dedicated to enhancing science education in grades
The University of Delaware and CMS mourn the loss of a dedicated
colleague and friend, Professor Ronald J. Gibbs, who died
in May after a brief illness.
Professor Gibbs joined CMS in 1974 after earning his doctorate
in oceanography from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. He
also held a bachelor's degree in business administration and a master's
degree in geological sciences from Northwestern University.
While at CMS, he taught more than 6 courses, advised over 50 students,
and left a legacy of research in waters ranging from the Hudson
River to the coral reefs of Belize.
His research on the particle size and composition of suspended
sedi-ments in rivers led to studies of the chemical mechanisms that
affect these particles once they enter estuaries and oceans. CMS
established the Center for Colloidal Science in 1981 to foster additional
research on fine particles, and Gibbs served as its director until
In recent years, Gibbs focused on the physical principles that
govern the deposition of small particles delivered by rivers into
the ocean. This research has contributed to a better understanding
of delta formation and will help solve problems associated with
the sedimentation of channels and harbors.
His studies of sediment transport in the Hudson River showed that
toxic metals and organic compounds are carried on fine-grained particles
into the Hudson River Estuary, advancing greater understanding of
where these pollutants originate, where they are deposited, and
their eventual fate.
Additionally, his research on sediments and nutrients discharged
by the Belizean River will contribute to the formulation of management
plans to protect the Belize Barrier Reef.
Professor Gibbs's legacy and his affinity with the sea will live
on in his students and colleagues at CMS.
On May 22, CMS lost a great friend when Phillip J. Wingate
passed away. He was 87. Dr. Wingate was a founding member of the
Marine Associates and was an enthusiastic supporter of its activities,
serving as the second chairman in 1980.
Dr. Wingate's love for the marine environment began when he was
a young boy exploring the marshes in Dorchester County on the lower
Eastern Shore of Maryland. He remained close to his roots throughout
In 1933, Dr. Wingate graduated with a bachelor's degree in mathematics
from Washington College, Chestertown, Maryland. He taught for several
years in the Maryland school system before earning his master's
and Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of Maryland.
Dr. Wingate retired in 1978 from the DuPont Company. He had a long
and successful career as a research chemist and served as company
vice-president and general manager of the Photo Products Department.
In retirement, he turned his attention to writing authoring five
books including Bandages of Soft Illusion, Before the Bridge,
and The Colorful DuPont Company. In addition, his articles
have appeared in such diverse publications as the Washington
Post, Wall Street Journal, Los Angeles Times, Baltimore Sun, and
Wilmington News Journal.
Dr. Wingate was an active board member of his undergraduate alma
mater, Washington College, and Wilmington College. He was a trustee
of the University of Delaware Research Foundation from 1979 to 1984
and was also affiliated with Lehigh University and his graduate
alma mater, the University of Maryland.
Dr. Wingate's gentle humor and perceptive observations are captured
in the story at right about Hugh R. Sharp, Jr., his long-time friend.
CMS is honored to have the opportunity to share Dr. Wingate's reminiscences
with the readers of At Sea.
Joanne Currier Daiber and the
Early Days of UD Marine Research
Stalling out in the middle of the shipping channel while crossing
the Delaware Bay in the Acartia, the University's first research
vessel, was just one of the memories that Mrs. Joanne Currier Daiber
shared with students and faculty as the guest speaker at Honors
Day. Mrs. Daiber has the unique distinction of being the first female
marine scientist hired by the University.
The University established a marine laboratory in 1951 to address
concerns about the state's declining fisheries. Mrs. Daiber was
one of the original group of five marine scientists who constituted
the fledgling laboratory's staff. L. Eugene Cronin was director
of this close-knit group, and Mrs. Daiber recollected, "None of
the early research could have been completed without the support
of every warm body in the laboratory."
Mrs. Daiber met her husband, Franklin C. Daiber, now a CMS professor
emeritus, when he joined the group the following year in 1952.
Mrs. Daiber's love for CMS and her work was reflected throughout
her talk as she described what it was like in the beginning years
of the college. "It was hard to sleep in the warm, stuffy room,
and I didn't have the money to buy even the smallest of fans. I
missed the luxury of a refreshing shower, but I loved my job."
Although there were long hours and the equipment was often not
the best, she spoke with wit and humor portraying the 40-foot
ship Acartia as a "hard ship." With tongue-in-cheek, Mrs.
Daiber told how her father took out an insurance policy that placed
her in the highest bracket that of deep-sea fishermen. Although
this may not have been necessary, as she looked "back some forty-five
years, I could not recall any life jackets on board and I am sure
that there was no inflatable raft."
CMS is grateful to Dr. and Mrs. Daiber for reminding us of the
many efforts that went into building the college into what it is
CMS would also like to thank Dr. Daiber for the generous contribution
he made in recognition of his wife's pioneering work in marine science
in the early 1950s. The Joanne Currier Daiber Fellowship will be
awarded annually to a female graduate student matriculated in the
Marine Biology-Biochemistry Program.
Recognized at Honors Day
Student accomplishments for the past academic year were recognized
at the annual CMS Honors Day ceremonies held in Lewes on May 5.
Dean Carolyn A. Thoroughgood presided over the ceremonies and, along
with associate dean Nancy M. Targett, presented awards to the recipients.
Mrs. Joanne Currier Daiber, the first female scientist hired by
the University, was the guest speaker.
Alison R. Sipe, M.S. graduate in marine biology-biochemistry,
received the E. Sam Fitz Award, recognizing the student who has
displayed the greatest aptitude for professional development in
the field of marine studies.
Frances Severance Academic Council Awards for the best thesis or
dissertation within a program area were awarded to Sandra M.
Schwalm, thesis in marine biology-biochemistry; Porter Hoagland
III, dissertation in marine policy; and David T. Ruppel,
thesis in oceanography. Evelia Rivera-Arriaga, Ph.D. student,
received the Center for the Study of Marine Policy Award for the
best research paper by a student in marine policy. Lexia M. Valdes,
Ph.D. student in marine biology-biochemistry, received the Thomas
H. Hinkle Award in recognition of her research on Delaware's Inland
Publications Awards went to Susan A. Welch, Ph.D. graduate
in oceanography, for "The Effect of Microbial Glucose Metabolism
on Bytownite Feldspar Dissolution Rates Between 5° and 35°C,"
co-authored by Dr. William J. Ullman, and published in Geochimica
et Cosmo-chimica Acta; and Timothy E. Proseus, M.S. graduate
in marine biology-biochemistry, for "Separating Growth from Elastic
Deformation During Cell Enlargement," co-authored by Drs. Joseph
Ortega and John S. Boyer, and published in Plant Physiology.
Katherine A. Bouton, Ph.D. graduate in marine policy, received
the Marvin B. Sussman Prize, presented to a Ph.D. graduate of the
School of Urban Affairs and Public Policy whose dissertation is
judged to be the most outstanding in its theoretical formulation
or empiricism. Ursula A. Howson, Ph.D. student in marine
biology-biochemistry, received an award for the best student presentation
from the Mid-Atlantic Chapter of the American Fisheries Society
for a paper co-authored by Dr. Timothy E. Targett, titled "Ecology
of Summer and Southern Flounder in the South Atlantic Bight."
Marian R. Okie Fellowships were awarded to Magdalena D. Anguelova,
Ph.D. student in oceanography; Kevin L. Stierhoff, master's
student in marine biology-biochemistry; and Andrea L. Geiger,
incoming master's student in marine policy. Nicole B. Lopanik,
Ph.D. student in marine biology-biochemistry, received the Dr. Paul
R. Austin Sea Grant Student Fellowship. Gerhard F. Kuska,
master's student in marine policy, received the Gerald and Frances
L. Bow Fellowship.
CMS Program Fellowships were awarded to the following master's
students: Christine A. Calverley, marine policy; Katherine
M. Achilles, oceanography, and Elias J. Hunter, physical
ocean science and engineering.
Robin M. Tyler, Ph.D. student in marine biology-biochemistry,
received a University Tuition Scholarship. University Competitive
Fellowships were presented to Christine A. Calverley and
Michael M. Whitney, Ph.D. student in oceanography. Michael
B. Jones and Lexia M. Valdes, Ph.D. students in marine
biology-biochemistry, were awarded President's Fellowships for academic
and research accomplishments
National Science Foundation Graduate Research Traineeships/Fellowships
in Coastal Oceanography were awarded to master's students Olivia
A. Hauser, Alexander E. Parker, Allison Y. Beauregard, Linda C.
Popels, and Frances M. Pustizzi, and Benjamin R. Wheeler
II; and Ph.D. students Maria G. Honeycutt, Cecily C. Natunewicz,
Matthew C. Schwartz, Carol D. Janzen, Michael M. Whitney, and
Many students received special recognition from various organizations.
Alison R. Sipe and Kirstin M. Ferrari, master's student
in marine biology-biochemistry, received awards for research excellence
in the Delaware Sea Grant College Program. Maria G. Honeycutt
received a Mitigation Directorate Award from the Federal Emergency
Management Agency for contributions above and beyond the call of
duty on the Hurricane George field damage assessment and Building
Assessment Team Report. Nicole B. Lopanik received a research
award from Sigma Xi, the Scientific Research Society, to fund her
study of the tropical sponge Callyspongia vaginalis.
Carrie Y. Kopin, master's student in marine biology-biochemistry,
was named a NOAA graduate research fellow in the National Estuarine
Research Reserve Fellowship Program. Susan Park was selected
as a participant for the 2000 Summer Institute in Korea by the Korea
Science and Engineering Foundation. Ursula A. Howson was
awarded a National Research Council Fellowship for postdoctoral
work at the Northeast Fisheries Science Center, National Marine
Fisheries Service Laboratory, in Sandy Hook, New Jersey.
The Benefit of Fellowships
The generosity of its many benefactors has enabled CMS to attract
the best and brightest students to its programs. Privately endowed
fellowships help our graduate students defray tuition and living
expenses so they can concentrate on their studies rather than pursue
other means of support.
In 1987, Mrs. Isabel Faucett Okie established the Marian R. Okie
Fellowship in remembrance of her only granddaughter. Awarded on
the basis of academic and research excellence and demonstrated leadership
abilities, it now has been presented to 17 students.
Cecily Natunewicz, Ph.D. student in oceanography, received the
fellowship in 1998 to support her research on the transport of blue
crab larvae in coastal waters.
"Ever since I was five, I knew I wanted to be a marine biologist,"
says Natunewicz. "The Okie Fellowship allowed me to continue my
research uninterrupted." Her work will help reveal the role that
physical processes, such as wind and currents, play in the blue
Natunewicz will graduate from CMS this winter. Then thanks to a
National Research Council Fellowship, she will begin post- doctoral
studies at the National Marine Fisheries Service Lab in Beaufort,
Provide Annual Scholarship
Recently, the Delaware Mobile Surf Fishermen (DMSF) generously
solidified their support of CMS by approving funding that will guarantee
a scholarship as an annual award to a qualified student. "The research
that is supported by this award will contribute to the protection
and enhancement of the health of the Delaware Bay," says Dr. Ann
Hastings, chair of the fishing group's Subcommittee on Scholarships.
"Continued research will ensure that the abundance of marine animals
and plants will continue to thrive, providing beauty and pleasure
for us to enjoy now and in the future."
This year's recipient of the $1,000 scholarship was Kevin Stierhoff,
a master's student in marine biology-biochemistry. Under the guidance
of Professor Timothy Targett, Stierhoff is studying the effect of
low dissolved oxygen on young summer and winter flounder. Stierhoff
is a native of Owings Mills, Maryland.
Oysters, Chickens, Zebra
Mussels, El Niño, and the
College of Marine Studies
by P. J. Wingate
Editor's Note: Several months before author Phillip J.
Wingate passed away, he wrote this article about his great friend,
Hugh R. Sharp Jr., after whom the University's Hugh R. Sharp Campus
in Lewes is named. Both gentlemen will be long-remembered at CMS
for their stalwart support, enthusiasm, and sense of humor.
The late Hugh Rodney Sharp, Jr., long-time trustee of the University
of Delaware, was a very witty and farsighted man.
He showed his sense of humor in many ways, but the name he gave
his airplane, which he flew from the oil fields of Alaska to South
America and other places in between, was a good example of his wit.
He had the name Pandemonium Airlines printed in large letters on
this plane, and when a mechanic in St. Louis asked him if pandemonium
was in Asia or Africa, he replied: "Neither one. It is wherever
I happen to be."
His truly remarkable foresight in environmental matters was displayed
about as widely as his airplane, but I remember it most vividly
in connection with oysters, chickens, zebra mussels, El Niño,
and the Marine Associates of the University of Delaware's College
of Marine Studies.
It all began in 1976, when I was eating some oysters on the half-shell
at one of the dinners the DuPont Company used to hold in those days.
Hugh Sharp, a member of the Board of Directors of DuPont, came up
to me and said: "I see you like oysters, but do you know that they
may soon be an endangered species? They are already scarce in the
I told him I did know that, and also that they were becoming scarce
in the Chesapeake Bay, too, but my old friend, Dr. Reginald Van
Trump Truitt, said there were thousands of coves and inlets around
the world where oysters still flourish, so I was not worried about
a supply of oysters on the half-shell. Hugh's eyes lit up when I
mentioned Dr. Truitt, and he asked if I knew him personally. I said
I did, that he was a long-time friend of my family, and that I admired
him for two reasons. First, because he had coached the University
of Maryland's lacrosse team to its first undefeated season, and
second because he had founded the first marine biology laboratory
on the East Coast, at Solomon's Island in the Chesapeake Bay. Hugh
said that he, too, admired Dr. Truitt but had never met him. We
talked about oysters a few minutes more, and then he invited me
to have lunch with him, the next day, in the Green Room of the Hotel
At that lunch, we both had oyster stews, and Hugh said his father
told him that when the hotel had its grand opening dinner in 1913,
it had served oysters on the half-shell from Maurice River Cove
in Delaware Bay and they were delicious. "But," he added, "when
the hotel holds its 75th anniversary dinner, they won't have Maurice
River oysters because they have all disappeared from the cove even
though some still grow in the less salty water of the river itself.
That is a shame because these oysters don't taste as good as those
from the cove. So the hotel will probably have to import its oysters
He went on to say that this was one of many reasons why he had
urged the University of Delaware to start a College of Marine Studies
and why he had founded the Marine Associates, to encourage and support
the new college, which would need a lot of support from the legislature
and the general public. He said he hoped that all the other states
on the East Coast would follow the examples of Maryland and Delaware
and start marine colleges, because the rivers and oceans of the
world have been very little studied by scientists, and programs
to understand them were going to cost more than Delaware and Maryland
can afford. "The public has to be educated first," he said, "to
the benefits which can come from marine studies."
"This," he said to me, "is where you come in. We have been trying
to educate the public and I would like you to become a member of
the Marine Associates. He paused there, and a grin crossed his face
before he added, tongue-in-cheek: "We don't work very hard at it,
and you strike me as being lazy enough to fit right in with the
rest of the Marine Associates."
I told him that his invitation was put in such flattering terms
that I couldn't turn it down. So I became a member of the Marine
Associates, and have been one ever since. It has been a pleasant
association, so pleasant in fact, that three years later I served
a term as chairman of the Marine Associates, after having been nominated
in a speech by Hugh Sharp which was as flattering as his original
invitation to become a member. He said, "I think we need a change
of management, and Wingate probably will do no harm even if he does
During our long association as members of the Marine Associates,
I heard Hugh Sharp talk about many things involving the Delaware
Bay, its rivers and coves, and the nearby Atlantic Ocean, but the
three which I remember best were zebra mussels, chickens, and El
Niño. The first two were one-time items, but the last one,
El Niño, had many parts.
Hugh told me one day that zebra mussels had been transplanted from
Europe into the Great Lakes and were creating real problems. I told
him I knew what a zebra was and what a mussel was, but I had never
heard of a zebra mussel. He explained that a zebra mussel was like
an ordinary mussel, except that it had black and white stripes on
its shell. Anyway, he said it had come into the Great Lakes after
the St. Lawrence Seaway was opened, thereby permitting ocean-going
freighters to come into the lakes, and the mussels had come in attached
to the hull of some vessels from Europe, or perhaps in the bilge
water or ballast which the ship had discharged. But once there,
they had grown like weeds and were plugging up lines to power plants
and interfering with other animal life in the lakes. "We have
more foreign ships coming into the Delaware Bay," he said,
"than ever enter the St. Lawrence and nobody knows what they
are bringing to us. I think the University should make a study of
this problem before it gets to be as serious as the one with the
zebra mussels in the Great Lakes."
Chickens were treated pretty much the same way. One day when Hugh
and I were riding in a car going to a Marine Associates' meeting
in Lewes, we passed by a large chicken farm and he pointed to a
huge pile of chicken manure at one end of the barn: "There is another
problem which the University should study before it gets too big
to handle. We used to import guano from South America to fertilize
our fields but now we grow our own. I guess that is a good thing
but it is easy to overdo a good thing, like the guy who drinks a
martini for lunch and likes it so much that he drinks four more
and runs into a culvert on the way home and kills himself." He dropped
the subject there and never brought it up again when I was near.
El Niño was different. He brought it up again and again. El Niño
puzzled him, he said, because the news media blamed it for everything:
floods along the Mississippi and droughts in Arizona, blizzards
in Georgia and heat waves in Alaska, hurricanes in Florida and tornadoes
in Texas. "You name it," he said, "and El Niño gets the blame for
it. Not only that, but it is all due to global warming caused by
increased carbon dioxide in the air."
He said he could understand that carbon dioxide is what is called
a greenhouse gas, so more carbon dioxide in the air would tend to
keep the Earth a little warmer, but he was by no means sure that
the Earth was really warming up. "I remember," he said, "that a
few years ago, the newspapers and TV were saying the Earth had cooled
down half a degree during the past 10 years, and we should all prepare
for a new ice age. Now they say it has warmed up a degree due to
more carbon dioxide in the air, which will make El Niño worse and
create all sorts of disasters."
He went on to say that the Spanish in California had given El Niño
its name 300 or so years ago, long before we began to burn fuel
oil and gasoline, and that it had varied from year to year even
then so he didn't see how it makes sense to blame everything on
a small increase in carbon dioxide from about .035% to .055%.
"It all seems to start in the Pacific Ocean," he said, "and one
year it is bad and the next year it is terrible. But the third year,
El Niño barely shows up at all while the carbon dioxide hasn't changed
enough to detect any appreciable change. I think that something
goes on deep in the Pacific, which we don't understand and that
causes El Niño to vary so much. There may be a lot of volcanoes
hidden in the Pacific, as well as on the rim of it, and these volcanoes
erupt from time to time, on a schedule of their own, to warm up
Then he added something which has remained stuck in my memory
ever since. "We need to explore the oceans far more than we have
so far because to blame variations in El Niño on tiny changes in
the carbon dioxide in the air while ignoring all the other things
such as underwater volcanoes is silly. It is like trying to explain
why water in the Mississippi River at New Orleans on March 1 is
colder one year than another by counting the snowballs thrown in
the Mississippi at St. Paul, Minnesota, by school boys during February,
while ignoring both the amount and temperature of the rain falling
in February in the Mississippi River itself as well as its tributaries
such as the Missouri and Ohio rivers."
On another occasion he told me that the geology of the oceans
needed to be studied as much as their chemistry and biology because
there probably were changes going on there, such as the formation
of new mountains like the ones which produced Hawaii and the other
islands near it, which would surely affect both the weather around
the world and life on land and sea.
Hugh Sharp died in 1990 before all of the things he had talked
about came true but not before some of them did.
When the Hotel du Pont celebrated its 75th anniversary in 1988,
it did serve oysters on the half-shell but they did not come from
the Maurice River Cove. Instead, they were imported from France
and its Belon River Cove, which is as open to the Atlantic Ocean
as the Maurice River Cove and so the Belon oysters had that same
He did miss reading in the April 1995 issue of Smithsonian
magazine that "just two years ago, for example, scientists discovered
in the mid-Eastern Pacific, the world's densest concentration of
active volcanoes, more than 1,100 sprawled across an area the size
of New York State." All believers that only carbon dioxide affects
El Niño should take note.
All this would have pleased Hugh, I believe, but he would have
been even more pleased, I suspect, by some other developments.
One of his sons, William M.W. ("Bill") Sharp, is now chairman
of the Marine Associates, and he and Dr. Carolyn Thoroughgood, Dean
of the College of Marine Studies, arranged the most exciting public
presentation in the history of the Marine Associates. This occurred
on October 14, 1998, when they brought Dr. Robert Ballard, the famous
marine explorer who found the long-lost sunken Titanic to
the Bob Carpenter Center for a lecture and exhibit. It drew an enthusiastic
crowd of about 3,000 people, many of them students who swamped Dr.
Ballard with requests for his autograph.
Finally, at a recent meeting of the executive committee of the
Marine Associates, Dean Thoroughgood announced she has requested
that the University of Delaware add geology to the list of sciences
included in the College of Marine Studies. And if the Dean succeeds
in making her request a reality, the new geology students may be
as excited as I believe Hugh Sharp would be about another statement
in the Smithsonian magazine which said, "Hidden beneath
the waves are mountain ranges soaring higher than the Himalayas,
chasms plunging deeper than the Grand Canyon, and plains spreading
out larger and wider than the Serengeti."
If they explore the Pacific thoroughly, they may find that Chile
has even more coves suitable for growing oysters than ones now exporting
them to New York City grow.
Interns Gain Hands-On Experience
Twelve students from universities around the nation recently participated
in the Research Experiences for Undergraduates at the Hugh R. Sharp
Campus in Lewes. The summer internship program is in its 14th year
and is supported by the National Science Foundation and coordinated
by CMS professor Jonathan Sharp.
During the 10-week program, each student worked on an independent
research projects with advice from a CMS faculty mentor. At the
conclusion of the program, they presented their results in written
and oral form. In addition, the interns attended weekly seminars
and participated in a research and training cruise aboard the research
vessel Cape Henlopen.
Garrett Hageman worked with adviser Jon Sharp to study the relative
carbon and nitrogen nutrition of phytoplankton using different nitrogen
sources. Under the guidance of chemist George Luther, Laura Hohmann
conducted a voltametric analysis of microbial mats in the salt marsh
to determine what inorganic sulfur compounds form when hydrogen
sulfide is oxidized.
Bonnie Chang, with adviser William Ullman, analyzed the chemical
changes that occur as groundwater and surface estuarine water mix
and react with aquifer material in the lower Delaware Bay. Working
with Chris Sommerfield, Ashley King studied the physical processes
that influence the distribution of benthic invertebrates in sediments
of the upper Delaware Bay and determined if the distributions varied
The Japanese shore crab was the focus of two projects. Sahrye Cohen
worked with scientist Adam Marsh to examine the differences in metabolism
between different larval stages to help explain their survival in
estuaries where the temperature and salinity constantly changes.
Marissa Stratton and Lizzie Nelson worked under Charles Epifanio
and Ana Dittel to see if chemical cues can predict settlement and
metamorphosis of the crab. This work will help determine whether
this non-native species will invade marshy areas.
Rachel Forbes worked with adviser Craig Cary to develop a method
to measure low levels of brown tide in estuaries. When this non-toxic
organism blooms, it can block sunlight from reaching grass beds
that many fish species use as nurseries. Under the guidance of Timothy
Targett, Alex Nord studied the effects of temperature, salinity,
and dissolved oxygen on juvenile fish development.
Jesse Smith, Jr., worked with adviser John Boyer to see how marine
plants become larger. He used a brackish-water alga with large cells
and designed a microscopic method to watch how macromolecules enter
the cell walls.
Tarron Herring and Yusuf Al-Rahman also participated in the summer
program under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy. Working
with marine biologist David Kirchman, Herring isolated a bacterium
that produced a red pigment and explored whether it protects the
bacterium from the sun or if it binds toxic and essential trace
metals. Al-Rahman used a DNA probe to identify the different bacteria
in marsh waters without culturing them.
Mangone Lecture Focuses
on River Commerce
The second annual Gerard J. Mangone Distinguished Lecture was held
May 4th at the Christiana Hilton in Newark, Delaware. This year's
lecture focused on the importance of Delaware River commerce to
both the state and region. Dennis Rochford, president of the Maritime
Exchange for the Delaware River and Bay and the National Association
of Maritime Organizations, was the guest speaker.
Mangone, University Research Professor of International and Maritime
Law, has been involved with the Port of Wilmington for many years.
He worked with the port to establish an intern program that gave
CMS students hands-on experience in shipping and management. In
addition, Mangone has supervised studies of the port's history,
its economic value to the community, and its future trade patterns
helping to guide the Port of Wilmington into the 21st century.
The Port of Wilmington is a member of the Maritime Exchange, a
non-profit trade association that is the premier advocate for the
businesses and ports of the Delaware River and Bay. Rochford has
been instrumental in promoting the Delaware River and Bay as a leader
in the commercial maritime industry. Under his guidance, the Exchange
has developed a comprehensive computerized system that tracks ships
as they navigate through the port. This system has led to substantial
cost-savings, increasing the port's competitiveness.
Rochford praised Mangone's role in helping to recommend the transfer
of the Port of Wilmington from the city to the state as he highlighted
the port's economic impact to Delaware. "Last year, 300
400 ships arrived in the port, generating $11 million in state and
local taxes alone," reported Rochford.
Dean Carolyn Thoroughgood established the annual lecture series
last year to recognize the stellar contributions that Mangone has
made in the field of marine policy and which he continues to make
Garvine Honored at Reception
On January 24, CMS recognized Richard Garvine, professor of physical
ocean science and engineering, for his many accomplishments as a
teacher and scholar. Friends, colleagues, and former students gathered
at a reception and dinner held in honor of his 60th birthday at
the Annual Ocean Sciences Meeting. Garvine was presented with a
gift certificate for $1,000 in enhancement funds by Dean Carolyn
Garvine received his bachelor's degree in aerospace engineering
from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1961 and his doctorate
in mechanical and aerospace science from Princeton University in
1965. After four years working in industry as a theoretical aerodynamicist,
he began his academic career as an assistant professor at the University
of Connecticut in 1969.
In 1977, Garvine joined CMS and firmly established his reputation
as a teacher the following year by receiving an Excellence in Teaching
Award from the college. This award was followed by the coveted University
Excellence in Teaching Award in 1985. In 1991, he was named the
Maxwell P. and Mildred H. Harrington Professor of Marine Studies
in recognition of his distinguished service as a teacher and a scholar.
Garvine's research focuses on the coastal ocean and estuaries,
in particular, the physics of their circulation. His current projects
include a study on the effects of wind, freshwater discharge from
estuaries, and tidal forces on the circulation of water on the continental
shelf; the upwelling of cold, deep water onto the shore as the summertime
winds drive the warmer waters offshore; and the role of coastal
circulation in the dispersal and recruitment of blue crab larvae.
Students Host Symposium
The first CMS Graduate Student Symposium for Marine Policy and
Science was held last October at the Lewes campus. Fifty-five CMS
students gathered to discuss their work through oral and poster
presentations. The symposium created a lively forum where students
shared their research and received valuable feedback from fellow
students. In addition to the presentations, the symposium included
guided field trips to the Great Marsh and the sand flats of Cape
Henlopen State Park, as well as dinner at the Dogfish Head in Rehoboth
Beach and a barbecue.
Carole A. Di Meo and Nicole B. Lopanik, doctoral
students in marine biology-biochemistry, were instrumental in organizing
the symposium. The overwhelming student enthusiasm for the symposium
made this first venture a tremendous success, and plans are under
way to make the event an annual tradition. For more information,
visit the symposium Web site at www.ocean.udel.edu/courses/symposium/index.html.
Adam Marsh Joins Faculty
CMS recently welcomed Adam Marsh to the faculty. As an assistant
professor in the Marine Biology-Biochemistry Program, he will teach
graduate courses in marine biochemistry with special emphasis on
the structure and function of proteins essential to marine life.
Marsh earned his Ph.D. in marine science from the University of
Maryland. He also has a master's degree in invertebrate zoology
and bachelor's degrees in zoology and English literature from the
University of South Florida.
His honors include the Lerner-Gray Marine Science Award for Molecular
Ecology and a Postdoctoral Fellowship in Biotechnology from the
National Science Foundation (NSF). Additionally, he is associate
director for the NSF course "Biological Adaptations of Antarctic
Marine Organisms" at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, and has served
as one of its instructors for the past seven years.
"My research has focused on understanding how the embryos of marine
invertebrates develop under harsh environmental conditions. This
has taken me to the polar seas of the Antarctic and the deep-sea
basins at the bottom of the ocean," Marsh says. "Temperature is
an important environmental constraint impacting development in these
extreme habitats," he notes. "I see many possibilities for future
comparative work in the Delaware Bay estuary, which can experience
large changes in seasonal water temperatures."
A second area of Marsh's research will focus on the ability of
early life stages of marine invertebrates to recognize pathogens
in the environment and initiate an appropriate cellular response
to prevent infections. This work will be focused on the interaction
between oyster larvae and a protozoan parasite that causes a severe
disease in adult oysters called Dermo. Understanding how oyster
larvae respond to a Dermo attack could help lead to the future development
of disease-resistant oysters.
Marsh's office is in Smith Laboratory at the Hugh R. Sharp Campus
in Lewes. His phone number is (302) 645-4367, and his e-mail address
is email@example.com. To learn more about his research, visit
his Web site at www.ocean.udel.edu/faculty/amarsh/marsh.htm.
Marine Associates' Corner
From the Chairman
Being a Marine Associate is one of the most pleasant, educational,
and rewarding experiences a person may have. Through the years,
I've made many wonderful friends as a result of my membership. The
common bond we share is an interest in the ocean and in helping
the University of Delaware College of Marine Studies develop one
of the leading marine programs in the nation.
I'm fortunate to have grown up in a family that always had a curiosity
about and love for the ocean. In fact, it was this fascination with
the sea and an appreciation of the benefits of marine research that
spurred my father to help found the Marine Associates years ago.
On the afternoon of January 14, 1979, a group of 34 staunch supporters
and friends of the college met in the ballroom of the University's
Goodstay Center in Wilmington to form the Marine Associates. My
father, Hugh R. Sharp, Jr., was elected the organization's first
chairman and took on the task with enthusiasm.
I read with great fondness the reminiscences that P. J. Wingate
shared about my late father in the article "Oysters, Chickens,
Zebra Mussels, El Niño, and the College of Marine Studies"
in this issue. Pop would be pleased to know that his family and
friends have learned a lot about El Niño and many other phenomena
from the lectures we've heard at the college, from the scientists
and students we've met, and from the hands-on activities offered
at Coast Day and other events. And we've been proud to contribute
financially to the college as it continues to help the next generation
of marine scientists achieve a superlative education.
If you think you might like to join the Marine Associates, it would
be my great pleasure to welcome you aboard. Why not reserve your
seat for our next meeting, or come to the next lunchtime lecture
at the Hotel du Pont in Wilmington and enjoy the great food and
the food for thought?
Also, don't miss the college's 24th annual Coast Day festival,
set for Sunday, October 1, from 11 a.m. to 5 p.m., at the Lewes
campus. You can take part in dozens of activities, from learning
about the latest marine research to eating fresh-cooked crab cakes
and other seafood.
Call the college at (302) 831-2841 for more information about any
of these events. I look forward to seeing you soon!.
William M. W. Sharp
CMS Tours Are Tops
For the past nine years, the CMS docents have been donating their
time, giving public tours of the college's research facilities at
the Hugh R. Sharp Campus in Lewes. Over the years, the tours have
introduced more than 10,000 visitors to the college and its activities.
The following docents were recognized at CMS's Honors Day ceremony
in May: Bob Carnahan, nine years; Jean Boyer, one year; Dorothy
Danegger, two years; Charles N. Freed, two years; James H. Gillard,
nine years; Kay Hackett, five years; and Russell Payne, five years.
Each docent was presented with a jacket that featured a "seafood
salad" consisting of one marine animal for each year
of service embroidered near the chest pocket.
Each tour typically begins with a 15-minute introductory video
presentation, followed by a one-hour walking tour of Cannon and
Smith Laboratory buildings. In these labs, faculty and graduate
students are working on projects with both local and global significance.
For example, one group of researchers is working to reveal the conditions
that make some Mid-Atlantic estuaries vulnerable to Pfiesteria
and other harmful algae. Others have discovered that the deep-sea
Pompeii worm can withstand temperatures of 176°F near hydrothermal
vents over a mile deep on the ocean floor.
This year, the overwhelming popularity of the tours has prompted
the Delaware River and Bay Authority to provide a shuttle for interested
passengers on the Cape May-Lewes Ferry.
The enthusiasm of the docents has contributed significantly to
the tour's appeal to ocean lovers of all ages. "The docents are
all local residents who enjoy talking and meeting with people who
share the same interests," says Bob Carnahan, who began the program.
Carnahan is a retired administrator from the National Oceanic and
Introducing the CMS Video
"What we know is a drop. What we don't
know is an ocean."
This famous quote by Sir Isaac Newton introduces the new CMS video.
The exciting 15-minute pre-sentation, which was produced by University
Media Services, will be used to showcase the ingredients that make
CMS a globally recognized leader in marine research and education.
Viewers are whisked from the beaches of Delaware to research labs
as they are introduced to the scientific projects being conducted
by CMS faculty and graduate students. The projects encompass a vast
arena of research in the marine sciences from the decline
of the horseshoe crab population in Delaware Bay to El Niño
and global warming. For more information, please contact the UD
Marine Communications office at (302) 831-8083.
Voyage to the Deep
Many people are familiar with the classic television show "Voyage
to the Bottom of the Sea" where audiences were introduced to the
magic of the undersea world through the explorations of the atomic
submarine Seaview. In January, the public was able to get a taste
of a real undersea adventure when they were able to travel along,
via the Internet, with the scientists aboard the Extreme 2000 research
expedition the first deep-sea expedition of the millennium.
Extreme 2000 traveled to hydrothermal vent sites on the floor of
the Sea of Cortés off the west coast of Mexico. The expedition
was part of a program initiated by the National Science Foundation
(NSF) called Life in the Extreme Environment. Although the primary
research goal was to investigate hydrothermal vent sites and their
bizarre community of organisms, chief scientist Craig Cary worked
closely with Tracey Bryant, marine outreach coordinator in the Marine
Communications Office, to increase public awareness of the project.
The resulting multimedia project "Extreme 2000: Voyage
to the Deep" received international attention for its
content and design. The project included a full-color resource guide,
a half-hour classroom video, and an interactive Web site (www.ocean.udel.edu/deepsea).
The educational project was a partnership between NSF, the University
of Delaware Sea Grant College Program and the College of Marine and Earth Studies, and WHYY-TV (PBS/Wilmington and Philadelphia).
The Web site, which was designed by CMS art director David Barczak,
featured text, graphics, and video clips under the headings "Mission
and Crew," "Seafloor Geology," "Creature Features," "Toxic Chemistry,"
and "High-Tech Tools." The site also included a resource center
and a special section entitled "News from the Deep," where video
clips, photos, dive logs, interviews with the scientists, and daily
journals were uploaded daily during the expedition. This information
was transmitted from ship to shore with the assistance of researchers
from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
A highlight of the project was a conference call be-tween Dr. Cary
in the submarine Alvin and students in 11 classrooms in Delaware,
New Jersey, and California. A spokesperson for each class asked
CMS graduate student Alison Sipe about life onboard the research
ship Atlantis in the Sea of Cortés. The call was then
patched through to Alvin on the seafloor, and each class
had an opportunity to ask Dr. Cary a question. The excitement of
the students is obvious in the audio file of the call, which is
available at the Web site under "News from the Deep."
Dive into www.ocean.udel.edu/deepsea
Editor's Note: Alumni Update, a periodic feature of At Sea,
helps our graduates stay in touch and illustrates the exciting careers
built on a CMS education.
M.S., Applied Ocean Science/Ocean Engineering, 1980
Ph.D., Applied Ocean Science/Ocean Engineering, 1985
Since graduating from CMS in 1985, Doug Hicks has been developing
instruments and equipment for a wide variety of scientific applications.
His clients have included both researchers at universities and labs
and private businesses. Hicks credits CMS for giving him the breadth
of knowledge that is required to understand the needs of all his
clients. His graduate work in ocean engineering, under the guidance
of his adviser, Charles "Mic" Pleass, resulted in five patents which
are held jointly with the University.
For the past two years, Hicks and John Protack, his partner at
CHPT (Composite High Pressure Technologies Manufacturing, Inc.),
have worked closely with CMS scientists to design the specialized
equipment needed for collecting deep-sea specimens and data.
"Dive time is very expensive," reports Hicks. "It's crucial that
the equipment not malfunction in the extreme temperatures and pressures
that are encountered at the vent sites." For the Extreme 2000 expedition
(see article left), Hicks's company was instrumental in designing
and building both the aquaria that held the deep-sea animals and
the sample chamber that transported the critters back to the surface.
They also provided engineering and fabrication support for the 'Sipper'
that was used to collect water samples, the electrochemical analyzer
used to identify the chemicals at the vent sites, and the core squeezers
used to collect sediment samples.
When Hicks isn't busy designing new equipment, he wears the hat
of professor and department chair for engineering technologies at
the Owens Campus of Delaware Technical and Community College in
"I really enjoy educating engineering technology students
to help prepare them for productive careers in industry," he
says. "I hope to share some of the lessons I've learned from
starting and running my own business to supplement the science and
engineering my students learn while in school."
Doug Hicks, President
CHPT Manufacturing, Inc.
100 Dock Road
Lewes, DE 19958
Epifanio, professor of marine biology-biochemistry, received
a special honor at the biannual meeting of the Estuarine Research
Federation in September 1999. The Estuarine Research Federation
is an international group of approximately 1,000 individuals from
different disciplines who study and manage the structure and functions
of estuaries and the effects of human activities on these fragile
environments. Student participants nominated Epifanio as one of
the scientists they would most like to meet and interact with during
the conference. Students were interested in Epifanio's research
on the role that natural forces play in controlling the population
of the blue crab fishery in the Delaware Bay as well as his studies
on deep-sea vent crabs. Epifanio's vent crab research was also highlighted
in a recent edition of the New Scientist, an international
science and technology news weekly.
G. Anderson, director and professor of marine policy was invited
to be a keynote speaker at the FishRights99 conference "Use
of Property Rights in Fisheries Management" held in Freemantle,
Australia, in November. The conference, sponsored by Fisheries Western
Australia in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization
of the United Nations, attracted over 300 participants from 50 countries.
Anderson's talk focused on the selection of a property rights fishery
management system. The control of property rights in fisheries is
a controversial topic, but is important in maintaining fisheries
at a sustainable level.
Badiey, associate professor of physical ocean science and engineering,
has been elected a fellow of the Acoustical Society of America.
He received the honor for his "contributions to the understanding
of the effect of sediment properties on shallow-water sound propagation."
Badiey also holds a joint appointment in the College of Civil and
Environmental Engineering. Founded in 1929, the Acoustical Society
of America is regarded as the premier international scientific society
in acoustics, dedicated to increasing the knowledge of the science
of sound and its applications. There are over 7,000 members in this
society in fields ranging from oceanography and physics, to speech
and hearing. There are 800 fellows in the society. Badiey is one
of 30 scientists who were awarded the honor during the past year.
YoUDee Sets Sail for
Many people are familiar with the comical illustration of the University
of Delaware's "Fightin' Blue Hen" equipped for work at
the College of Marine Studies. The drawing (see
pdf) was made in 1972 by Dr. Paul Catts, a professor of entomology
at the University. The illustration, affectionately referred to
as "the Chicken of the Sea," has appeared for many years
on the college's 120-foot research vessel, the Cape Henlopen.
Delawareans have been known as the "Fightin' Blue Hens"
since the Revolutionary War when the first Delaware regiment carried
Kent County Blue Hen gamecocks. The gamecocks were prized for their
fighting ability. The regiment earned a similar reputation for valor.
This year, the faithful fowl will be retired from service and replaced
with the University's official mascot, "YoUDee." The illustration
(see pdf), of YoUDee at sea, was drawn
by Keith Heckert, an artist at University Media Services.