Click here for a pdf version
Vol. 24, No. 1
Annual Report 2005
Exploring the Ocean We Treasure with An Eye to the Future
Welcome to the 2005 edition of the University
of Delaware Sea Grant Reporter! The goal of this publication is to share with you some of the research and educational activities that are being conducted by the University of Delaware Sea Grant College Program and to seek your input on coastal issues that concern you.
Based in the UD College of Marine Studies, Delaware Sea Grant is a statewide program that receives funding from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the State of Delaware, and the University to pursue high-priority research and outreach initiatives that will foster the wise use, conservation, and management of Delaware's marine resources.
Currently, among our major objectives, Delaware Sea Grant is leading the development of the Delaware Bay Observing System, a network of sensors, deployed from Fourteen Foot Bank Lighthouse, that will help us determine the path of pollutants such as oil, forecast coastal storms, and predict the annual population of blue crabs and other fisheries. By exploring the bay with a set of new, high-tech "eyes," we can provide new insights into the state of Delaware's marine environment, which is so critical to our quality of life.
As you read on, I encourage you to get involved in our programs,
activities, and events. We look forward to seeing you soon!
Dr. Nancy Targett
Interim Director, UD Sea Grant College Program
Interim Dean, UD College of Marine Studies
Delaware Bay Observing System: Using High-Tech "Eyes" to Monitor the Sea
Along the U.S. coastline, ocean observing systems -- networks of sensors that continuously collect data on the sea all around us -- are coming on-line, marking a new age of oceanographic research.
The goal of these systems is to expand our knowledge of the ocean, a resource that covers more than 70% of the Earth, by providing up-to-the-minute information that can contribute to a range of societal, environmental, and economic benefits.
According to the final report of the presidentially appointed U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy, issued in 2004, implementing an Integrated Ocean Observing System along the U.S. coastline will save the nation an estimated $1 billion a year through enhanced weather forecasts, improved resource management, and safer, more efficient marine transportation.
Currently, this national system comprises 11 regional observing associations, involving academic institutions, industries, resource management agencies, and other representatives from the public and private sectors. These data users are working to design, implement, and sustain the operation of these high-tech systems.
The University of Delaware is making important contributions to the effort. UD recently organized the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (MACOORA). Spanning the coast from Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras, it includes representatives from nine states and the District of Columbia. Its sub-regions include the bays of Massachusetts and Connecticut, Long Island Sound, New York Bight, Delaware Bay, and Chesapeake Bay.
Scientists at the UD College of Marine Studies, supported by Delaware Sea Grant, are advancing the Delaware Bay Observing System. They are working with scientists in the UD Geography Department who are developing the Delaware Environmental Observing System to provide real-time weather, stream flow, and tidal information.
Recent headlines -- from a proposal to establish a liquefied natural gas plant in Delaware waters to one of the largest oil spills in the Delaware River's history -- underscore the need for timely, objective information to address environmental issues and respond to crises, protect the marine resources we depend on, and safeguard human lives in their interaction with the sea. As the Delaware Bay Observing System and companion networks evolve, Delawareans will gain a new vantage point from which to plan and realize their vision of the coast -- a resource critical to us all.
A New Way of Looking at the Bay
UD marine scientist Mohsen Badiey is leading the scientific team that has outfitted Fourteen Foot Bank Lighthouse, located in Delaware Bay, as a novel base for collecting oceanographic and weather data. An anemometer and thermometer on the lighthouse continuously record air temperature, wind speed, and direction. On the seafloor, a current meter measures the speed and direction of the currents, and three sensors called CTDs record water temperature, salinity, and depth. At the sea surface, a surf-rider wave gauge is temporarily deployed to gather data on wave conditions.
All the sensors, which are solar-powered, are cabled to a computer aboard the lighthouse that automatically relays the information to the UD College of Marine Studies in Lewes. From there, the data are transmitted to Badiey's lab at the Newark campus and uploaded to the Delaware Bay Observing System Web site at http://www.udel.edu/dbos/.
"This is an exciting project that will give us the capability to track environmental changes as they are occurring, and over a long-term basis," Badiey says. "This information will expand our knowledge of Delaware Bay and help us better understand the exchange processes between the bay and ocean."
Badiey says the research has application to fisheries management, shipping, oil spill response, storm preparedness, Homeland Security, and many other issues.
"The public also will be able to use the data to plan recreational activities such as boating, and teachers can integrate the data into science lessons on the bay," he notes.
In the future, the scientists plan to expand the system beyond the bay and into the ocean, with the installation of high-frequency radar for collecting wave data. Delaware's information will be integrated into a regional observing system spanning the coast from Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras.
Modeler Working on
As a research investigator on tsunamis in the Indian Ocean, coastal engineer Jim Kirby is well aware of the potential benefits of ocean observing systems in protecting the public from coastal hazards.
In a Sea Grant study at the UD Center for Applied Coastal Research in Newark, Kirby is using data from the Delaware Bay Observing System to test a computer model for predicting wave conditions. "Hindcast" experiments, in which the model's performance is evaluated against data taken by wave gauges temporarily deployed near Fourteen Foot Bank Lighthouse, are now being conducted.
According to Kirby, the wave data currently available for Delaware Bay is actually recorded by buoys located miles offshore near the Gulf Stream. He says an accurate forecast of wave conditions in the bay and along nearby ocean beaches could result in several benefits.
"Besides increasing the safety of boaters and fishermen, such a tool could help coastal communities prepare for storm surges and aid search-and-rescue missions at sea, among other applications," he says.
Lighthouse Serves As Research Base
With permission from the U.S. Coast Guard, University of Delaware marine scientists are using Fourteen Foot Bank Lighthouse as a research platform for deploying meteorological and oceanographic sensors that continuously record environmental data for the Delaware Bay Observing System. Solar panels on the lighthouse, power the instruments and data transmission system.
Made of cast iron and first lit in 1888, Fourteen Foot Bank Lighthouse was the first "submarine" lighthouse built in the United States. In this construction method, which helped lighthouses withstand the pressure of flowing ice, a double-bottomed caisson -- a hollow, cast-iron cylinder -- was sunk up to 33 feet into the seabed. Air was then pumped in to force seawater out of the caisson's bottom so that workers could continue to excavate and prepare the foundation underwater.
Although it is closed to the public, this Delaware sentinel continues to aid mariners. Its beacon and foghorn were automated in 1972.
Buoy to Moor Sensors
George Luther, a marine chemist at the UD College of Marine Studies, and doctoral student Tommy Moore are shown with the buoy that will moor their scientific instruments in Delaware Bay for the first tests in their research to establish a real-time chemical monitoring system in the estuary.
When deployed this summer, the buoy's payload will include the state-of-the-art chemical sensor that Luther and adjunct professor Don Nuzzio created and a device called the CTD, which measures seawater salinity, temperature, and depth.
Luther's goal is to operate the sensors in the bay right from his office at the UD Lewes campus using wireless com-munications technology.
The buoy was customized for the project with the assistance of Tim Deering on the UD Marine Operations staff. The yellow part will be above the water line. Three 12-volt batteries in the brown well at the bottom of the unit will power the scientific instruments. The batteries will be recharged by solar energy. Holding the buoy in place at sea will be two railroad wheels that will serve as anchors on the ocean floor.
Predicting the Supply of Blue Crabs
The blue crab's Latin name, Callinectes
sapidus, means "beautiful, savory swimmer" -- a description with which many a seafood lover would agree. So when there's talk about a shortage of blue crabs, local gourmands get, well, nervous.
The population of young, juvenile crabs in any given year is a key determinant of the size of the harvestable, adult population. UD marine scientist Charles Epifanio and Ph.D. student Letise Houser have worked with physical oceanographers Richard Garvine and Charles Tilburg to develop a mathematical model that can predict general trends in the size of the juvenile blue crab population over time.
But to make more detailed year-to-year population forecasts, Epifanio says they need more data on when blue crab eggs hatch in the bay.
If you live near the Delaware Bay or Delaware's Inland Bays, you can help the scientists collect egg-bearing female crabs. The crabs will not be harmed. From June through September, daytime collections will be made using a seine net at Lewes Beach, while night-shift volunteers will use dip nets from the fishing pier at Cape Henlopen State Park. To learn more, call the College of Marine Studies at (302) 645-4279.
An Out-of-This-World View of the Ocean
Underwater sensors aren't the only instruments that collect ocean data. Satellites orbiting the Earth also constantly record information.
The novelty of studying the ocean from space lured Brian Dzwonkowski -- the 2005 recipient of the Delaware Sea Grant Student Award -- to the UD College of Marine Studies two years ago.
"I never realized you could make quantitative assessments of the marine environment through space-based means until I began looking into pursuing my graduate degree," he says. "Having grown up near the coast, that really intrigued me."
The 28-year-old native of Red Bank, New Jersey, earned his master's degree in marine studies at UD and is now working on his doctorate. Currently, he is assisting his adviser, Xiao-Hai Yan, co-director of the Center for Remote Sensing, in developing new techniques for analyzing satellite data that will help scientists quantify the complex physical and biological processes that are occurring in Delaware Bay.
For example, sea-surface temperature data from satellites can reveal the location of coastal "upwelling" -- in which warmer surface water is transported offshore by wind and waves, and cooler water is raised to the surface. Two summers ago, beachgoers along the Atlantic coast experienced the chills and thrills of this phenomenon when they went to take a dip in the ocean and found the water a lot colder than they expected.
Coastal upwelling also can have a range of impacts on fisheries, Dzwonkowski says. "It's been estimated that over half the world's fish supply is produced in coastal upwelling zones," he says. "Scientists here at UD have shown that upwelling events also are important to the transport of blue crab larvae and their recruitment to adults. Conversely," he notes, "if upwelling centers form and recur over and over again, they can generate a surplus of nutrients that rob the water of oxygen and stress fish."
After he completes his Ph.D., Dzwonkowski says he has two major goals. "I'd like to continue my research at an academic institution or a government agency," he says, "and never live more than 15 minutes from the beach."
Getting to the Bottom of Bay Sediments
With over a million tons of sediment entering the Delaware Estuary each year, it seems like an impossible task to sort out where all those mud and sand particles are coming from, how they get moved around, and where they eventually land on the seafloor. And why should we care anyway?
The answer, UD geological oceanographer Chris Sommerfield says, is important to a number of complex management issues in the waterway.
"Fine-grained sediments are at the heart of issues ranging from maintenance dredging to toxic contamination in the estuary," he notes. "However, before we can predict patterns and rates of sediment deposition and erosion, we need a fundamental understanding of sediment transport mechanisms."
River runoff, tides, and winds are the primary "movers and shakers" of sediments
in the estuary, according to Sommerfield. He and Kuo-Chuin Wong, a physical
oceanographer at the UD College of Marine Studies, are working to assess the
magnitude of each of these forces on daily and seasonal time scales. Recently,
they began research to determine how much sediment is coming into the estuary
north of Wilmington -- a high-flow area -- compared to the amount delivered south
of it. The scientists have deployed current profilers and other sensors in the
waters off New Castle, Artificial Island, and Bombay Hook to begin gathering
data. The two-year project will be conducted in partnership with the Delaware
River Basin Commission.
Web Site Informs Public about Oil Spill
On Friday, November 26, 2004, at approximately 9:15 p.m., the 750-foot, single-hull tanker Athos
I, registered under the flag of Cyprus, was reported to be leaking oil into the Delaware River en route to an asphalt refinery in Paulsboro, New Jersey. Two punctures in the tanker's hull, believed to be caused by a submerged pipe on the river bottom, later were confirmed by Coast Guard divers.
Soon after the oil spill occurred, Delaware Sea Grant began receiving calls from the media and the public for information. Where would the oil go? What wildlife would be affected? Would seafood from Delaware Bay be safe to eat?
Sea Grant outreach staff in the UD Marine Public Education Office and the Marine Advisory Service joined forces with researchers to develop a Web site at http://www.ocean.udel.edu/oilspill/ to provide answers. Since it went on-line in early December, it has served as a resource for the public, state and federal agencies and organizations, and media ranging from the National
Herald for Greek Americans to National Geographic.
Of special note, a U.S. policy specialist in Iraq is using the Web site as a resource in his quest to provide the country's constitution writers and politicians with information in developing environmental laws for their coastal communities.
Estimated at 265,000 gallons, the Athos I oil spill ranks as one of the largest oil spills in the Delaware River's history, and its damages are still being assessed. The Web site will continue to be updated as new information becomes available.
Sea Grant Outreach
Sea Grant's outreach team -- the Marine Advisory Service and Marine Public Education Office -- relays research-based information to the public in support of coastal stewardship, science education, economic development, and public safety.
Based at UD's Lewes campus, the Marine Advisory Service assists Delawareans with issues relating to water quality, aqua-culture and fisheries, seafood technology, marine education, marine business and transportation, coastal hazards, and tourism.
Marine Public Education, based at UD's Newark campus, translates complex scientific information and presents it in award-winning publications, "SeaTalk" radio announcements, on-line expeditions, exhibits, and Web sites.
This page highlights only a few of our activities. For more infor-mation, visit Sea Grant on the Web at http://www.ocean.udel.edu or contact the Marine Advisory Service at (302) 645-4346 or Marine Public Education at (302) 831-8083.
Break the Grip of the Rip(TM)
If you got caught in a rip current, would you know what to do? Each year in the United States, more than 100 people drown in these powerful currents.
Sea Grant coastal processes specialist Wendy Carey assisted NOAA and the U.S. Lifesaving Association last year in launching "Break the Grip of the Rip,(TM)" a national safety campaign reaching millions. She also has been working with Delaware's beach communities and beach patrols to increase public awareness about rip currents.
"If you get caught in a rip current, don't panic," she says. "Swim parallel to shore to get out of the current, or float or tread water and call or wave for help if you need it." For more information, call Carey at (302) 645-4258 or visit http://www.ocean.udel.edu/ripcurrents/.
Delaware NEMO Program Launched
Joe Farrell, Sea Grant marine resource management specialist, is coordinating Non-Point Education for Municipal Officials (NEMO) -- a statewide network of educators, resource managers, and planners that is providing communities with educational programs and materials to help them plan where and how to develop while protecting their natural resources.
During the past year, Delaware NEMO hosted community workshops on topics ranging from stormwater pond maintenance to developing riparian buffer ordinances. A program brochure has been published, and a guide to natural resource-based planning will be available later this year. To learn more, contact Farrell at (302) 645-4250.
A charter member of the National NEMO Network, Delaware NEMO is funded primarily by Delaware Coastal Programs and Delaware Sea Grant.
How Does Your Oyster Garden Grow?
For the past two years, Sea Grant aquaculture specialist John Ewart has been coordinating a pilot oyster gardening program in Delaware's Inland Bays, initiated by the Center for the Inland Bays through a grant from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Foundation. Fifteen volunteers have been growing baby oysters, or "spat," in small floats attached to their backyard docks. The spat then have been planted on the James Farm Oyster Reef in Indian River Bay.
"These efforts have demonstrated that oyster growth is excellent in all three Inland Bays -- Rehoboth, Indian River, and Little Assawoman," Ewart says. "The baskets of oysters on the reef provide great habitat for grass shrimp, juvenile fish, and other life." For more details, see Ewart's Web page at http://darc.cms.udel.edu/.
Boost Your Seafood IQ!
Food educators in the region, from nutritionists to home economists, have a unique opportunity to learn more about seafood, thanks to a hands-on program offered by Delaware Sea Grant's seafood technology specialist, Doris Hicks, and her colleagues at Pennsylvania Sea Grant and Penn State Cooperative Extension.
The two-day workshops -- "Seafood Sense: Fisheries Tech-nology for Educators" -- provide participants with information on commercial fishing practices, buying, handling, and preserving seafood, and seafood composition and nutrition. The next program is set for November 1-3, 2005, at UD's Lewes campus. For information, call Hicks at (302) 645-4297.
State's First "Clean Marina" Recognized
Last September, Indian River Marina in Delaware Seashore State Park became Delaware's first certified "clean marina." Dis-playing the flag at the recognition ceremony were, Sea Grant marine transportation specialist David Chapman, John Hughes, secretary of the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (DNREC); Gary King, manager of Indian River Marina; and Lt. Governor John Carney.
Chapman coordinates the Delaware Clean Marina Program, a voluntary effort that enlists marinas -- and the boaters that use them -- in helping to reduce pollution of the state's waterways by adopting environmentally friendly practices, from spill-proof fueling methods to oil recycling. The program is a partnership involving Delaware Sea Grant, DNREC, the Center for the Inland Bays, Boat U.S. Foundation, and the U.S. Coast Guard Auxiliary.
So far, 20 of the state's 100 marinas have taken the Clean Marina pledge, which is the first step in the certification process. For more information, call Chapman at (302) 645-4268.
Students Explore the Deep Frontier
What's it like diving to the bottom of the deep blue sea? Nearly 55,000 middle- and high-school students from 49 U.S. states and eight foreign countries, including Austria, Canada, Iran, Mexico, New Zealand, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and Uzbekistan found out as participants in "Extreme 2004: Exploring the Deep Frontier," a 21-day virtual field trip to hydrothermal vents, hosted by the UD Marine Public Education Office in December.
The award-winning program connected students with UD marine scientist Craig Cary and his team working aboard the submersible Alvin and research vessel Atlantis in the Pacific Ocean. Photos, video clips, and journals were posted daily to http://www.ocean.udel.edu/extreme2004/, an interactive Web site that includes a virtual tour of the seafloor, a 3-D Pompeii worm (Earth's most heat-tolerant animal), and more. The program was sponsored by the National Science Foundation, NOAA Sea Grant, WHYY-TV, and the University of Waikato, New Zealand.
Horseshoe Crabs Count!
It's 1:00 a.m. at Bowers Beach, and Sea Grant marine education specialist Bill Hall has just completed an interview about horseshoe crabs for the British Broadcasting Company. Over the years, Hall, an expert on Delaware's state marine animal, has been interviewed by media around the world.
Due to concerns about declining crab populations, each spring since 1990, Hall has coordinated a bi-state census of spawning female horseshoe crabs on 13 key beaches in Delaware and 11 in New Jersey. The largest numbers of crabs come ashore to spawn at night under cover of darkness so that's when Hall and his volunteers begin their work. To learn more, see Sea Grant's horseshoe crab Web site at http://www.ocean.udel.edu/horseshoecrab/.
Coastal Tourism Efforts Honored
Jim Falk, director of the Delaware Sea Grant Marine Advisory Service, was honored with the 2004 Southern Delaware Tourism Award in November.
In addition to managing a staff of six marine specialists who assist Delaware residents with coastal challenges, Falk has years of experience in marine recreation and tourism and has helped organize several "smart growth" seminar programs in the county to help communities retain their small-town character, heritage, and high quality of life while balancing future growth.
Catch the Wave
Get involved in learning
about the coast!
Want to learn more about the ocean and have fun in the process? Look no further. Delaware Sea Grant has a bounty of activities to offer -- from assisting marine scientists with research on blue crabs to meeting a dogfish shark at our award-winning Coast Day festival.
In addition to the activities listed here, be sure to check out our Web site at http://www.ocean.udel.edu, where you can download many of our publications, listen to our SeaTalk radio series, take a virtual tour of the seafloor in a submersible, watch video clips of our research, and more! For a copy of our publications catalog, please contact the UD Marine Public Education Office at (302) 831-8083.
Marine Tour Program
Guided tours of UD's marine research complex in Lewes are available to the public, thanks to dedicated volunteers from the local community. They lead over 1,000 people annually on hour-long walking tours of our labs. To learn how you can join the program, please contact the Sea Grant Marine Advisory Service at (302) 645-4346.
UD's annual sea celebration, the winner of state and national awards for marine education, is set for Sunday, October 2. If your company would like to help support Coast Day, please contact the Sea Grant Marine Advisory Service at (302) 645-4346.
The Marine Associates program in the UD College of Marine Studies was established in 1979 to bring together "for enlightenment and entertainment individuals who take an active interest in the college's work." To join, call (302) 831-2841.
Volunteers are needed to collect and analyze water samples in the Broadkill River watershed. You'll learn a lot and contribute data useful to state resource managers. Training is provided. For more details, call the Sea Grant Marine Advisory Service at (302) 645-4346.
Horseshoe Crab Census
Horseshoe crab eggs supply shorebirds and fish with food. The crab's blood, removed with no apparent harm, is the basis of a pharmacological test to ensure that intravenous medications are bacteria free. A horseshoe crab census is held on Delaware Bay beaches each spring. If your organization would like to assist, call the Sea Grant Marine Advisory Service at (302) 645-4346.
Blue Crab Research
Help researchers learn more about blue crabs in Delaware Bay. Volunteers are needed to help collect female, egg-bearing crabs twice a week, during the daytime, at Lewes Beach using seine nets. Nighttime sampling will be done at high tide, with dip nets, from the fishing pier at Cape Henlopen State Park. The crabs will not be harmed. For more details, call (302) 645-4279.
Events and Activities
Ocean Currents Lecture Series in Lewes.
UD marine scientists present free public lectures the third Thursday of each month, April through September, at 7:00 p.m., UD Hugh R. Sharp Campus, 700 Pilottown Rd., Lewes. Reservations required. Contact: (302) 645-4279.
Wilmington Lunch & Lecture Series.
Held periodically from November to April, this series highlights the latest UD marine research over lunch at the four-star Hotel du Pont. 11:30 a.m. - 1 p.m. Cost: $15. Reservations required. Contact: (302) 831-8083.
Coast Day — Sunday,
Oct. 2, Lewes Campus.11 a.m. to 5 p.m. Free admission; $2 parking. Have an ocean of fun learning about
the coast at this award-winning event. Sea seminars, exhibits, ship tours, marine
critter touch tanks, children's activities, 16th annual crab cake cook-off, and
more! Contact: (302) 831-8083.
Free Marine Science Tours.
Guides lead hour-long walking tours of the UD College of Marine Studies in Lewes throughout the year. From June through August, tours are offered every Friday, starting at 10:30 a.m. Reservations required. Contact: (302) 645-4346.
Native Plant Garden Tours.
Learn about plants native to the Delaware coast on this self-guided tour. The garden is located at the entrance to Cannon Lab at the UD College of Marine Studies, 700 Pilottown Road, Lewes. Contact: (302) 645-4346.
Stay Connected to the Coast
Sign up for our free e-newsletter, At
Sea! It contains the latest news about the research, activities,
and events offered by the
UD College of Marine Studies and Delaware Sea Grant. Subscribe on-line at http://www.ocean.udel.edu/atsea or e-mail your request to the UD Marine Public Education Office at MarineCom@udel.edu.
The Sea Grant Web site contains a treasure trove of information on topics ranging from rip currents to seafood, aquaculture to marine careers. Dive in to http://www.ocean.udel.edu/ today, and explore the world at our shores!
Sea Grant Advisory Council
Mr. William J. Miller, Jr., Chairman
Mr. Russell Archut
Mr. Gene Bailey
Hon. Joseph W. Booth
Hon. George H. Bunting, Jr.
Hon. V. George Carey
Hon. John C. Carney, Jr.
Hon. G. Wallace Caulk, Jr.
Ms. Carol R. Collier
Hon. Dori Connor
Ms. Sarah Cooksey
Hon. Charles L. Copeland
Mr. Richard S. Cordrey
Hon. Joseph G. DiPinto
Mr. John Dragone
Hon. Bruce C. Ennis
Mr. Gerard Esposito
Captain Holly Ann Firuta
Ms. Lorraine Fleming
Mayor James L. Ford, III
Mr. Daniel Furlong
Mr. William Grosskopf
Mr. Geoff Halfpenny
Ms. Jeanie Harper
Mr. A. Richard Heffron
Hon. Gerald W. Hocker
Mr. John A. Hughes
Mr. James T. Johnson, Jr.
Dr. Daniel J. Leathers
Mr. Edward A. Lewandowski
Dr. Ann Masse
Hon. David B. McBride
Ms. Judy McKinney-Cherry
Mr. Roy Miller
Mr. Gary B. Patterson
Ms. Grace Pierce-Beck
Dr. Joseph Pika
Ms. Shirley Price
Mr. Michael S. Purzycki
Ms. Betsy Reamer
Dr. Hazell Reed
Mr. Dennis Rochford
Mr. James J. Roszkowski
Dr. Paul E. Sample
Mr. Edward Santoro
Mr. John Schneider
Hon. Peter C. Schwartzkopf
Dr. Janice A. Seitz
Dr. Edward M. Simek
Hon. F. Gary Simpson
Hon. Liane Sorenson
Ms. Maria A. Taylor
Dr. Carolyn Thoroughgood
Mr. Douglas Van Rees
Ms. Katherine Ward
Mr. Stuart Widom
Ms. Valerie Woodruff