Volume 17, No. 2 Spring 1999
Using Space-Age Technologies to
Monitor the Coasts Health
From their orbit hundreds of miles above us, satellites continuously
record information about the Earth with cameras, radar, and special
Thanks to these eyes in space and Delaware Sea Grant research
aimed at bringing into sharper focus what they see along the coast
resource managers soon may gain new tools for assessing the health
as complex as the Delaware Bay.
Coastal managers need to be able to easily observe resources
like the Delaware Bay and track key health indicators, from the
pollutants in the water, to the productivity of wetlands that serve
as nursery areas for the bays fish, ; says Professor
Robert Knecht, co-director of the University of Delawares
Center for the Study of Marine Policy.
From their vantage point in space, satellites can provide resource
managers with real-time data on entire bays, marshes, and watersheds,
he notes. But the time and costs associated with acquiring and
interpreting satellite images have limited the use of this technology
by coastal managers.
During the past three years, Knecht and UD marine scientist Vic
Klemas have coordinated a special research initiative, funded
by a $1 million grant from the National Sea Grant College
Program, to over-come some of these obstacles and provide resource
managers with innovative technologies for monitoring the coast.
Called the Coastal Ecosystem Health Project, the monumental effort
has brought together UD experts in fields from oceanography to agriculture
and an advisory committee of resource managers from throughout Delaware.
Their goal has been to harness the vision of satellites
and other imaging technologies to help a coastal environment threatened
by challenges as diverse as wetlands loss and the fish-killing microbe
Detecting Changes in Wetlands
Delaware Sea Grants Coastal Ecosystem Health Project has
been organized into three components. The goal of the first research
group, led by Professor Vic Klemas, has been to integrate land-cover
data gathered by satellites into a Geographic Information System
(GIS) for monitoring wetlands health.
A GIS is a computer system that allows the user to create a composite
map of an area from multiple layers of data. A GIS of the Delaware
coast might include a satellite image overlaid with zoning maps,
highway maps, and others of interest to the user.
By incorporating satellite and aircraft images into a wetlands
GIS, we can show resource managers changes in land use affecting
wetlands, from encroachment by urban development, to invasion by
nuisance plants such as Phragmites, says Klemas.
Klemass team used Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite images
and aerial photographs to map the Phragmites in the wetlands
of the Blackbird Creek and St. Jones River watersheds in 1979 and
1993. Both sites are part of the National Estuarine Research Reserve
system, a network of protected areas for research and education.
A satellite detects visible and infrared light reflected from features
on land, from farmland to construction areas. The amount of light
reflected varies by feature or, in the case of a marsh, by plant
type. Each marsh plant species has a unique spectral signature,
and Klemas and his team have learned to read many of them.
Since satellite images are accurate to a resolution of 1 to 2 acres,
Klemass team relied on photos taken by aircraft to gain an
even sharper focus of the wetlands in the two watersheds. In an
aerial photo, Phragmites is easy to spot because it is greener
and taller than other marsh plants.
The teams analysis showed an increase in Phragmites
from 1979 to 1993 at both sites despite intermittent control efforts.
At Blackbird Creek, the plant expanded its range from 26% to 45%
of the watershed, or from 917 acres to 1,569 acres. In the St. Jones
River watershed, the plant increased its coverage from 4.4% to 7.4%,
or from 150 acres to 254 acres.
The team concluded that Phragmites could invade the entire
Blackbird Creek study site, while the plants expansion in
the St. Jones River watershed appears to be limited to upland edges
due to higher salinities at that site.
Together, satellites and GIS can provide coastal managers a faster
and more comprehensive tool for assessing wetlands than traditional
field techniques, Klemas says. The data can be compared easily
from year to year to help managers detect changes in wetlands health.
The cost of satellite data is decreasing dramatically, Klemas adds.
Currently, one satellite image, which is the equivalent of
a 100-mile-by-100-mile area,costs $4,000. With the launching of
Landsat 7 this June, it will be only $400, he notes.
Focusing in on the Delaware Bay
While Klemass team used satellites to track wetlands changes
related to coastal health, oceanographer Xiao-Hai Yan and his team
have focused on developing a remote sensing system to help resource
managers more easily track changes in the Delaware Bay.
As its name implies, remote sensing refers to monitoring
a subject at a distance. Remote sensors may range from microwave
radar on satellites, to the
listening devices used in underwater acoustics research.
Using data derived from satellite images, space shuttle photographs,
and acoustics profilers, Yan and his group have developed a monitoring
system for the Delaware Bay that includes a number of parameters
that may be used to assess the bays health, from water temperature
and salinity, to suspended sediments.
A major challenge faced by Yans team was to figure out how
to help satellites see better in order to distinguish
between sediments and algae in bay surface waters.
The concentrations of sediments and of chlorophyll from algae are
important indicators of aquatic health. Sediments prevent sunlight
from penetrating to algae, which need light to grow. The microscopic
plants represent the first critical link in the bays food
Satellites can easily discern chlorophyll concentrations in the
open ocean, where the water is clear of sediments. But in the Delaware
Bay, sediments from land runoff cloud surface waters, making it
difficult for satellites to sort out what is sediment and what is
To overcome this limitation, Yan and his team developed a new satellite
data processing method using a neural network. Modeled after the
brain's interconnected system of neurons, neural networks have been
used for tasks ranging from translating foreign languages to interpreting
medical data. The mathematical processing method can sort out patterns
and learn from trial and error.
Once we primed it with a training set of data
from actual water-quality measurements taken in Delaware Bay, our
neural network method was able to model suspended sediments versus
chlorophyll to a much higher degree of accuracy than conventional
analyses, Yan says.
We hope this technique will save resource managers time and effort
in gathering and assessing water-quality data on the bay, he notes.
Formerly, such data could be gathered only through water-sampling
operations conducted from research vessels in the bay.
Looking at the Coast through the
Eyes of Resource Managers
The third vital component of Sea Grants Coastal Ecosystem
Health Project has been to establish open lines of communication
between UD scientists and resource managers at agencies throughout
the state and region.
Led by Professor Biliana Cicin-Sain, co-director of the UD Center
for the Study of Marine Policy, the outreach team established a
Managers Advisory Committee for the project. This group of coastal
managers provided input to scientists regarding managers goals
and monitoring needs. During the past three years, scientists and
managers have shared information through regular meetings and through
the Coastal Courier newsletter created by Sea Grant expressly
for the project.
In cooperation with resource managers, Cicin-Sains team also
developed case studies on the states coastal management programs,
reviewing their missions and accomplishments. This information is
being shared with managers to aid them in standardizing monitoring
techniques and in advancing the states watershed approach
to coastal management.
As the UD scientific team wraps up a technical report on the technologies
developed for the Coastal Ecosystem Health Project, research coordinator
Robert Knecht reflects on their progress.
Only by breaking down the walls between academic disciplines
and between academicians and managers can progress result,
he says. We've brought together a diverse group of people,
solved a number of challenges, and succeeded in demonstrating how
space-age tools can be used to monitor the coast. Its our
hope that the project will serve as a model for other states working
to advance state-of-the-art technologies for the benefit of the
environment. Tracey Bryant
Editors Note: A technical report on Sea Grant's Coastal
Ecosystem Health Project is in production. For more information,
please contact the UD Marine Communications Office at (302)
Building Better Bridges between
Coastal Managers and Scientists
Establishing strong partnerships between resource managers in the
field and UD coastal scientists has been critical to the success
of Delaware Sea Grants Coastal Ecosystem Health Project.
Under the leadership of Professor Biliana Cicin-Sain, co-director
of the UD Center for the Study of Marine Policy, a Managers Advisory
Committee was formed to provide input to the project to ensure the
usefulness of the monitoring techniques developed. Coastal managers
form the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental
Control (DNREC), the Center for the Inland Bays, Partnership for
the Delaware Estuary, and county governments all participated.
Working together weve built the bridges that help strengthen
science and management, she says. The ultimate beneficiary
should be the coast we all treasure.
Spotting Algae in Delaware Bay
Satellites can be used to track an important water-quality indicator:
concentrations of microscopic plantsin surface waters. Satellites
detect the light reflected by plant chlorophyll.
As shown in these figures of Delaware
Bay (see pdf), high chlorophyll concentrations generally are
associated with shallower regions. The abrupt shift in concentrations
beyond the bays mouth denotes the boundary between the outflowing
Delaware Coastal Current and the less productive waters of the continental
shelf. The decrease in chlorophyll concentrations in the lower bay
on October 4 appears to be due to strong, persistent winds.
Delaware Sea Grant Receives $2.8 Million
The University of Delaware Sea Grant College Program has been awarded
$2.8 million to conduct 23 marine research and education projects
critical to Delaware and the Mid-Atlantic region over the next year.
The grant includes $1.25 million from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration in the U.S. Department of Commerce, and $1.55 million
from the State of Delaware, the University, and other sources.
for Marine Research and Education
The projects target six major areas: coastal ocean studies, environmental
technology, coastal engineering, marine biotechnology, fisheries,
In coastal ocean studies, scientists will assess dissolved oxygen
conditions in the Delaware River and Bay to determine if present
water-quality guidelines need revising; examine the impacts of dredge
spoil on the bays bottom-dwelling organisms; and use infrared
technology to map coastal groundwater seeps and assess their importance
in carrying nutrients and contaminants to the bay.
In Delawares Inland Bays, researchers will determine the
importance of tidal motions on bay nutrient and oxygen levels.
Other coastal ocean studies include refining a unique sensor that
can rapidly analyze the chemistry of seawater and sediments, and
developing the widely regarded nuisance plant Phragmites
into a first-rate sludge buster for use in wastewater
In environmental technology research, a team of marine scientists
and engineers will explore the feasibility of using lighthouses
in Delaware Bay as remotely controlled field stations for gathering
acoustic, weather, tide, and current data for long-term ecosystem
Coastal engineering research will focus on developing predictive
models for shoreline change and improving erosion mitigation strategies.
A team of coastal engineers will examine the hydrodynamics of rip
currents, turbulent eddies in the surf zone, and other phenomena.
Scientists also will conduct an economic analysis of beach nourishment,
or preserving the beach with sand, versus retreating from the
beach and allowing nature to take its course in specific coastal
Marine biotechnology researchers will study how organic pollutants
impact the Delaware Bays microbial community. Scientists also
will couple molecular genetics and geochemistry to examine the bacteria
that thrive in the extreme temperature and chemical conditions found
at deep-sea hydrothermal vents. These bacteria possess enzymes that
may be valuable in a host of high-temperature industrial applications
such as food processing.
In fisheries research, scientists will determine the optimal nursery
conditions for two of the regions most commercially valuable
flatfish summer flounder and southern flounder. A related
study will focus on the effects of low oxygen conditions on feeding,
growth, and survival of young weakfish, summer flounder, winter
flounder, and striped bass. The goal of both projects is to help
resource managers define essential fish habitat.
Economists will develop simulation models for commercial and recreational
fisheries that can predict the effects of commonly used management
techniques. Other scientists will continue research on how Delaware
Bay circulation processes impact the bays blue crab population.
The horseshoe crab will continue to be a focal point of research,
as scientists work to develop a cost-effective artificial bait that
chemically mimics the animal. The projects goal is to relieve
fishing pressure on the declining horseshoe crab, which is used
as bait in several fisheries.
At Delaware State University, aquaculture experts will define the
optimal methods for growing crawfish and bait fish in the Mid-Atlantic
Delaware Sea Grant will continue its strong commitment to hands-on
education of graduate students in marine studies, by providing them
with the opportunity to work side-by-side with their professors
on Sea Grant research projects.
A significant public education mission will be conducted by the
Sea Grant Marine Advisory Service (MAS) based at the Lewes campus
and by the Marine Communications Office in Newark. Efforts are under
way in areas ranging from aquaculture to teacher training in marine
science. The staff develop publications, workshops, and Web sites,
and coordinate the Universitys award-winning Coast Day festival.
Falk Named Director of Marine Advisory Service
James M. Falk is the new director of the University of Delaware Sea
Grant Marine Advisory Service (MAS). Based at the Hugh R. Sharp Campus
in Lewes, MAS specialists travel the state to conduct outreach projects
in marine education, seafood technology, aquaculture, resource management,
and recreation and tourism.
Jim brings a great deal of experience and enthusiasm to this
position, which is critical to the welfare of our Sea Grant program,
said Dr. Carolyn A. Thoroughgood, Sea Grant director. Under
his leadership, we look forward to continuing to serve Delawareans
with timely, useful information about coastal concerns important
to all of us, from Pfiesteria to shoreline protection.
A resident of Rehoboth Beach, Falk has a masters degree in
recreation and resource development from Texas A&M University.
He joined Delaware Sea Grant as a marine recreation and tourism
specialist in 1978 and later served for six years in the dual role
of MAS leader and specialist. Since 1992, he has focused his outreach
efforts on priority projects in zebra mussel awareness, ecotourism,
beach safety, and water-use planning for the states Inland
Falk is vice-chairman of the Scientific and Technical Advisory
Committee of the Center for the Inland Bays and a board member of
the Sussex County Convention and Tourism Commission. Throughout
his career, he has been recognized by various organizations for
his public service efforts in areas ranging from boater education
to beach safety. In 1997, he and colleagues received the Governors
Tourism Award for helping to develop state initiatives in ecotourism.
Falk replaces former MAS director Kent S. Price, who will retire
from the University later this year after 33 years on the faculty
of the College of Marine Studies. Price, a marine biologist, served
as MAS director for the past six years.
Students Awarded Sea Grant Fellowships
Two University of Delaware graduate students in marine studies
Alison Sipe and Dosoo Jang are diving into ocean policy-making
efforts in the nations capital. They have been selected as National
Sea Grant Fellows.
Sponsored by the National Sea Grant College Program, in the National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the fellowship matches
outstanding graduate students with host agencies in the federal
government, providing the scholars with a paid, year-long experience
working on marine issues.
On February 1, Sipe began working at the National Science Foundation
in the Division of Ocean Sciences. She wants to gain an insiders
view of the grant process that drives basic research in marine science.
A masters degree candidate in marine biology-biochemistry,
Sipe has assisted her adviser, Dr. Craig Cary, on a Sea Grant marine
biotechnology project aimed at finding an antifoulant to repel the
shipworm. This wood borer, which is actually a clam, feasts its
way through millions of dollars in ships,
pilings, and other coastal structures each year. In 1997, Sipe received
the National Shellfisheries Associations Student Poster Award
description of the research.
Sipe also has undertaken a number of public education efforts,
ranging from tutoring high-school students in math and chemistry,
to designing hands-on science activities for UDs Coast Day
festival. She is a native of Wilmington, Delaware.
Dosoo Jang has been assigned to the International Programs Office
in NOAAs National Ocean Service, where he is helping to implement
bilateral activities between the United States and China and Japan
in coastal environmental science and technology.
A doctoral candidate in marine policy, Jang has special interests
in integrated coastal management, which encourages the incorporation
of science into the policy-making process and views the marine environment
as a whole rather than as a set of unrelated resources.
Last year, he worked as an integrated coastal management consultant
at the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of the United
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
He received NOAAs Ocean and Coastal Management Award for excellence
in graduate study in 1997.
A native of South Korea, Jang makes his home in Ellicott City,
Maryland, with his wife and two daughters.
Scientists In the News
Fish Scientist Reels in Listeners
Did you catch UD fisheries scientist Tim Targett on the air waves
He was interviewed by the American Association for the Advancement
of Science (AAAS) for their Why Is It? radio series.
Broadcast on more than 160 radio stations nationwide, the series
also is frequently heard on the Mutual Broadcasting Systems
America in the Morning news program.
Targett tackled a listeners questions about the flatness
of flounder. To hear Targett's response, which was broadcast on
January 19, cast your line for the AAAS Web site at www.scienceupdate.com,
or link to it from Scientists in the News under News
& Events at our Web site www.ocean.udel.edu/seagrant.
Coastal Engineer Jaws about Waves
Coastal engineer Robert Dalrymple has been riding a wave of publicity
since providing the science behind a story in National Geographic.
The article Maui Surf, in the magazines November
1998 issue, highlights the monster waves called Jaws
that are formed a dozen times
a year off Mauis north shore.
At National Geographics Web site, surfers can learn more
about how Jaws is formed, by linking to Dalrymples
page at the UD Center for Applied Coastal Research www.coastal.udel.edu/ngs.
Dalrymples analysis of Jaws also was featured
on CNNs Web site at cnn.com/TECH/science/
8,000 Brave Rain to Attend Coast
The weather for Coast Day 1998, on October 4, was drizzly and gray.
But it didnt put a damper on the public's enthusiasm for learning
more about the ocean.
An estimated 8,000 visitors turned out for Sea Grants award-winning
festival at the Hugh R. Sharp Campus in Lewes. The annual events
goal is to increase public awareness and understanding of the ocean
through fun, interesting activities.
Highlights included a special Year of the Ocean exhibit in Cannon
Lab that introduced visitors to the deep sea, coral reefs, and beaches.
Visitors could inspect the homes of deep-sea tubeworms, view colorful
reef fish in an aquarium, and see the formation of sandbars along
the beach in a continuously operating wave tank.
In nearby Smith Lab, students from Talley Middle School transformed
a greenhouse into an undersea adventure, complete with steaming
Dozens of other indoor activities were available, from lectures
on El Niño and other topics, to the Great Crab Race, Internet
tours of the Titanic, and seafood cooking demonstrations
by local chefs.
Outside, the artist Wyland kicked off the Delaware leg of his national
Ocean Challenge to boost sea awareness and stewardship. Famous for
his Whaling Walls life-size marine murals hes
painted on buildings throughout the nation Wyland inspired
students of all ages to join together in painting an ocean mural
on a 24-foot-long canvas.
Coast Day had a lot to offer seafood lovers, from seafood pizza
and fried clams, to the ninth annual crab cake cook-off and first-ever
Seafood Chowder Challenge.
The chowder challenge was a friendly competition between the First
State Chefs Association and the Delmarva Chefs and Cooks Association.
Coast Day visitors were served a 2-ounce portion of each chowder
and asked to vote for their favorite.
When the votes were tallied, Clam Chowder Hot and Spicy Delmarva
Style, by the Delmarva Chefs and Cooks Association, came out on
Created by chef Bob Davis, of Phillips by the Sea Restaurant in
Ocean City, Maryland, the creamy New England-style chowder combines
clams, potatoes, bacon, and lots of seasoning.
The chowder challenge will return next Coast Day, on Sunday, October
3, 1999. In the meantime, gather family and friends and stir up
some Clam Chowder Hot and Spicy Delmarva Style.
The winning recipe (see pdf), serves
The Oceanographer's Corner
The Deep Sea
Perhaps no area of the ocean is more shrouded in mystery than the
deep sea. Years ago, it was believed that the oceans greatest
depths were devoid of life. But recent discoveries have revealed that
the deep sea is home to many fascinating creatures.
Here live huge clams, 8-foot-tall tubeworms that resemble giant
lipsticks, and bizarre-looking fish equipped with big mouths and
stretchy stomachs to make the most of what little food floats down
from above, such as whale carcasses.
Where is the deep sea? The ocean bottom is divided into three major
areas: the continental shelf, continental slope, and deep ocean
The continental shelf extends from the shore for an average of
30 miles, with hills, ridges, and canyons similar to the Grand Canyon.
At a depth of about 660 feet, the continental slope begins. It
descends about 12,000 feet.
Then the ocean floor deepens sharply and its features resemble
those on land, only on a much larger scale, with great plains and
mountains higher than Mt. Everest.
In fact, the Earths longest mountain range is under the sea.
Over 30,000 miles long, this mountain range, called the Mid-Ocean
Ridge, snakes its way around the globe.
In some areas along the ridge, the gigantic plates that form the
Earths crust are moving apart, creating cracks in the seafloor
where super-hot water spews out. Called hydrothermal vents,
these underwater geysers release clouds of minerals that resemble
smoke coming out of a chimney. Thats why scientists call hydrothermal
vents black smokers.
Extraordinary animals live near these vents, able to withstand
the tremendous pressure created by the weight of the vast sea above
them. In the Pacific Ocean, huge clams and tubeworms are the most
distinctive inhabitants, while eyeless shrimp are found deep in
the Atlantic Ocean.
Deep-Sea Worm Is Earths
University of Delaware marine scientist Craig Cary recently discovered
that an inhabitant of the deep sea is the most heat-tolerant creature
on Earth. The Pompeii worm (Alvinella pompejana) can survive
temperatures up to 176°F nearly hot enough to boil water.
Formerly, the Sahara desert ant was believed to be the most heat-hardy
creature, foraging briefly in the desert sun at temperatures up
Carys research was conducted onboard the submersible Alvin
at hydrothermal vent sites in the Pacific Ocean west of Costa Rica.
Using a long probe called The Mosquito, he found that
the worms rear end sits in super-hot water, while its head,
which sticks out of the worms tube home, rests in water that
is much cooler, about 72°F.
Covering the Pompeii worms back is a fleece of bacteria that
can also take the heat. These bacteria may harbor enzymes
useful in such high-temperature industrial applications as processing
food and drugs, making paper, and dislodging oil inside wells.
By learning more about the unique biology of the Pompeii worm and
other extremophiles organisms that thrive in extreme temperature
pressure conditions scientists may open the door to new products
useful to all of us.
Please mail your request, and if necessary, your check payable to
University of Delaware, to University of Delaware,
Marine Communications Office, Newark, DE 19716-3530. A nominal
fee is assessed to defray printing and postage costs for certain publications.
For additional publications by Delaware Sea Grant and the entire Sea
Grant network, please visit the National Sea Grant Depositorys
Web site at www.nsgd.gso.uri.edu.
In the Public Interest
Seafood Safety: What Consumers Need to Know. Written
by seafood specialists at the Delaware and Alaska Sea Grant programs,
this brochure informs consumers of the proper handling and storage
techniques required to keep seafood safe to eat. Free.
Pfiesteria piscicida: Facts about a Fish Killer.
The microscopic organism Pfiesteria is believed to have caused
major fish kills in estuaries from North Carolina to Delaware. Learn
more about the complex organism in this fact sheet. Free.
Publications Catalog. Delaware Sea Grant has developed
publications on a wide variety of topics, from horseshoe crabs to
coastal landscaping. This
revised catalog also describes videos and slide/tape programs available
for sale or rental. Free.
On the Relative Importance of the Remote and Local Wind Effects
to the Subtidal Variability in a Coastal Plain Estuary (DEL-SG-14-98)
by K.-C. Wong and J. Moses. Reprinted from Journal of Geophysical
Research 103(C9): 18,393 18,404. The spatial structure
associated with wind-induced circulation is important to the long-term
transport and distribution of waterborne material. This study demonstrates
that the subtidal sea-level fluctuations in the Delaware Estuary
are more strongly forced by remote rather than local wind effects.
However, local wind effects may be more important in producing subtidal
currents at any point along the estuarys cross-section. Cost:
Recent Developments in the Use of Voltammetric Solid-State
Microelectrodes to Understand Diagenetic Processes (DEL-SG-15-98)
by G. Luther III, M. Taillefert, A. Bono, P. Brendel, B. Sundby,
C. Reimers, D. Nuzzio, and D. Lovalvo. Reprinted from Mineralogical
Magazine 62A: 921 922. The scientists deployed the
microelectrode on a Remotely Operated Vehicle to measure dissolved
oxygen, manganese, iron, and sulfide at a 10-meter-deep site in
Raritan Bay, New Jersey. Cost: $1.
Early Life History of Hemigrapsus sanguineus, A Non-Indigenous
Crab in the Middle Atlantic Bight (DEL-SG-16-98) by C. E.
Epifanio, A. I. Dittel, S. Park, S. Schwalm, and A. Fouts. Reprinted
from Marine Ecology Progress Series 170: 231 238.
Recently introduced to the U.S. northeast coast, the Japanese shore
crab (Hemigrapsus sanguineus) has established populations
extending throughout the Middle Atlantic Bight. This study shows
that the crabs spawning season in the southern part of the
bight continues for at least four months, which is much longer than
the spawning seasons of native crabs. While zoeal larvae tolerate
a wide range of temperature and salinity combinations, the megalopa
stage appears to have more stringent requirements, which may restrict
them to the rocky shores of the coastal ocean and adjacent high-salinity
regions of the estuary. Cost: $1.
Disasters and Coastal States: A Policy Analysis of Presidential
Declarations of Disaster 1953 97 (DEL-SG-17-98) by
R. Sylves. The author investigates the 44-year history of U.S. presidential
disaster declarations for 30 coastal zone states and 9 commonwealth/trust
territories. Based on data compiled by FEMA, NOAA, and other federal
agencies, he tracks the record of natural and man-made disasters
involving gubernatorial requests for presidential disaster declarations.
GIS displays of coastal disaster experience are provided to promote
multi-hazard disaster mitigation; to compare coastal zone disaster
experience with inland disaster experience; and to statistically
analyze the variables that seem most important in explaining declaration
approvals and turndowns. Cost: $5.